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Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346

by: Alia Coughlan

Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346 ANEQ 346

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Equine Science > ANEQ 346 > Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346
Alia Coughlan

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Week 7 Notes
Equine Disease
Dr Hess
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346 9/30 Quick Notes on Conformation ­Want short back ­Long back has chronically soft tissue ­Want large undercarriage ­Foot should make a right triangle ­Bisected evenly ­Coronet parallel to the ground surface Lecture 14 Osteoarthritis *Osteoarthritis = permanent joint damage Basic Pathobiologic Processes ­Synovitis and capsulitis ­Release of inflammatory mediators from leukocytes ­Release of lysosomal enzymes ­Local synthesis of prostaglandins ­Interleukin synthesis ­Physical and biochemical damage to articular cartilage ­Inflammatory mediators released by activated neutrophils ­Pain from inflamed tissue ­Effusion and reduced range of motion *Traumatic Arthritis = the diverse collection of pathologic and clinical states which develop after single or repetitive episodes of trauma *Synovitis = inflammation of the synovial membrane *Capsulitis = inflammation of the fibrous joint capsule *Sprain = injury of specific ligaments associated with a joint *Intra­articular fracture = happens in joints and fetlocks Grades of Traumatic Arthritis ­Type 1 ­Least damaging ­Includes acute synovitis, capsulitis and most sprains ­Responds well with rest ­Type 2 ­Includes severe sprains, intra­articular fractures and meniscal desmitis ­May require surgery ­Type 3 ­Major residual damage ­Patients may have deformity, limited ROM and joint instability Drugs Most Commonly Used for Traumatic Arthritis ­Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans ­Sodium hyaluronate ­Corticosteriods = most potent IRAP Orthokine ­Blocks interleukin production ­Centrifuged ­3 series injection into soft tissue ­Mild exercise between injections in recommended *PRP = has improved concentration of growth factors necessary in healing ligaments and tendons 10/3  Absent from class 10/5 Lecture 16 Developmental Diseases in Foals Dr. Bass ~ Guest Lecturer DOD Conditions ­OCD ­Physitis ­Inflammation of growth plates on long bones ­Swelling at level of growth plate  ­Treat only if lameness is present ­How to Treat: ­Decrease plane of nutrition = reduce caloric intake ­Balance confinement with controlled exercise ­Anti­inflammatories ­Monitor with radiographs ­Angular Limb Deformities ­Carpus – valgus(towards outside) ­Fetlock – varus(towards inside) ­Tibia – valgus(towards outside) ­Any combination of the above ­SHOULD NOT BE LAME *Valgus Deformity = distal limb deviates laterally away from the sagittal plane of limb (knock­kneed) *Varus Deformity = deviates medially away from the sagittal plane of limb (bow­legged) ­Causes: ­Asynchronous physeal growth ­One side of growth plate grows faster ­Ligamentous laxity ­Tarsal/carpal cuboidal bone collapse ­Tarsal/carpal bone fractures ­Pathogenesis: ­Multifactorial ­nutrition, placental blood flow, genetics, intra­urine positioning ­Propagated by distribution of stress across joint and physis ­Sites of Deviation: ­Carpus ­Valgus most common ­Want physeal closure by 22­36 months of age ­Rate of growth declines after 6 months ­Not a problem to the athlete ­Actually desirable ­Fetlock  ­Varus most common ­Toes pointing forward in presence of carpal valgus ­Want physeal closure by 3 months of age ­Rate of growth declines by 10 weeks ­Tarsus ­Least common of all ALDs ­Generally valgus ­Consider transphyseal bridging if… ­Foal doesn’t improve in 4­6 months ­Deviation is greater than 25 degrees ­Want physeal closure by 17­24 months of age ­Diagnosis: ­Visual assessment ­Palpation ­Lameness ­History – trauma ­Radiography ­Therapy: ­Conservative ­Exercise restriction  ­Nursing restriction ­Application of hoof extensions ­Dalric shoes ­Need to be replaced every 2 weeks ­Surgical  ­Done when no improvement is seen ­2­3 months with carpal/tarsal deviations ­2 weeks for fetlock deviations ­Options  ­Periosteal Stripping ­Transphyseal Bridging ­Screws & wires = lotsa complications ­Staples = not used anymore ­Single screw = most common ­Bone plate *Prognosis is good if the growth plate is fixed before it closes ­Coboidal Bone Malformation ­Incomplete osffication of cartilage ­Associated with premature birth ­Acquired Flexural Deformities ­Two Types: ­Flexural deformities of distal interphalangeal joint ­Flexural deformities of metacarpophalangeal joint ­Treatment: ­Inferior Check Desmotomy ­Used if DDF is tightest and supplement with PVC splint ­Juvenile Bone Spavin ­Disease affecting the lower joint in hock ­Abnormal development ­Collapse/crushing of cuboidal bones ­No work or training when diagnosed ­Treatments: ­Intra­articular steroids ­Shoeing changes to improve breakover and restore hoof balance ­Rest *Wobblers = narrowing of spinal canal that pinches cord during growth ­Happens to larger horses ex: warmbloods, happens more in males ­Happens to horses how had trauma ­Clinical signs include incoordination, lacks awareness of limbs ­Therapy includes early intervention and surgical stabilization 10/7 Going Back to Equine Foot Lecture Sheared Heels ­Hoof Capsule distortion displacement bulb proximally ­One heel out of balance (overuse of one heel) ­Signs: ­Pain, subsolar bruising, quarter and heel cracks, bar fracture, pedal osteitis ­May initiate navicular disease ­Hoof wall is straighter ­Deep fissure base of the frog ­Causes: ­Conformational fault ­Incorrect Trimming ­Treatment: ­Lower wall ­Shoes with bars ­Foot into warm water 20 minutes, rubber pad and bandage ­Foals; trimming and glue on White Line Disease ­Seedy toe yeast infection ­Keratolytic process – progressive separation inner zone hoof wall ­Surface approaching coronary band ­Causes: ­Bacteria, fungus ­Moist climate ­Early signs: small powdery area along sole/wall junction, tender soles, heat ­Lameness ­Hoof tester ­Treatment: ­Correct primary cause – excessive toe length, hoof imbalance ­Treat affected area with foot support and therapeutic shoeing ­Hoof resection, debridement of tracts ­Medical treatment has no value without resection ­5% iodine twice a week ­Rotation support – heart, bar, egg bar shoe ­Glue on shoe ­KEEP FEET DRY Puncture Wounds of the Foot ­Foreign bodies penetration ­Superficial majority of cases ­Drainage ­Superficial wounds with bacteria penetration ­Signs: ­Lameness, digital pulse, temperature, black spots ­Treatment: ­Tetanus, softening foot, adequate drainage ­Defected protected with bandage *If there is a deep puncture, treatment needs to be immediate


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