Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346
Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346 ANEQ 346
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Week 7 Notes for ANEQ 346 9/30 Quick Notes on Conformation Want short back Long back has chronically soft tissue Want large undercarriage Foot should make a right triangle Bisected evenly Coronet parallel to the ground surface Lecture 14 Osteoarthritis *Osteoarthritis = permanent joint damage Basic Pathobiologic Processes Synovitis and capsulitis Release of inflammatory mediators from leukocytes Release of lysosomal enzymes Local synthesis of prostaglandins Interleukin synthesis Physical and biochemical damage to articular cartilage Inflammatory mediators released by activated neutrophils Pain from inflamed tissue Effusion and reduced range of motion *Traumatic Arthritis = the diverse collection of pathologic and clinical states which develop after single or repetitive episodes of trauma *Synovitis = inflammation of the synovial membrane *Capsulitis = inflammation of the fibrous joint capsule *Sprain = injury of specific ligaments associated with a joint *Intraarticular fracture = happens in joints and fetlocks Grades of Traumatic Arthritis Type 1 Least damaging Includes acute synovitis, capsulitis and most sprains Responds well with rest Type 2 Includes severe sprains, intraarticular fractures and meniscal desmitis May require surgery Type 3 Major residual damage Patients may have deformity, limited ROM and joint instability Drugs Most Commonly Used for Traumatic Arthritis Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans Sodium hyaluronate Corticosteriods = most potent IRAP Orthokine Blocks interleukin production Centrifuged 3 series injection into soft tissue Mild exercise between injections in recommended *PRP = has improved concentration of growth factors necessary in healing ligaments and tendons 10/3 Absent from class 10/5 Lecture 16 Developmental Diseases in Foals Dr. Bass ~ Guest Lecturer DOD Conditions OCD Physitis Inflammation of growth plates on long bones Swelling at level of growth plate Treat only if lameness is present How to Treat: Decrease plane of nutrition = reduce caloric intake Balance confinement with controlled exercise Antiinflammatories Monitor with radiographs Angular Limb Deformities Carpus – valgus(towards outside) Fetlock – varus(towards inside) Tibia – valgus(towards outside) Any combination of the above SHOULD NOT BE LAME *Valgus Deformity = distal limb deviates laterally away from the sagittal plane of limb (knockkneed) *Varus Deformity = deviates medially away from the sagittal plane of limb (bowlegged) Causes: Asynchronous physeal growth One side of growth plate grows faster Ligamentous laxity Tarsal/carpal cuboidal bone collapse Tarsal/carpal bone fractures Pathogenesis: Multifactorial nutrition, placental blood flow, genetics, intraurine positioning Propagated by distribution of stress across joint and physis Sites of Deviation: Carpus Valgus most common Want physeal closure by 2236 months of age Rate of growth declines after 6 months Not a problem to the athlete Actually desirable Fetlock Varus most common Toes pointing forward in presence of carpal valgus Want physeal closure by 3 months of age Rate of growth declines by 10 weeks Tarsus Least common of all ALDs Generally valgus Consider transphyseal bridging if… Foal doesn’t improve in 46 months Deviation is greater than 25 degrees Want physeal closure by 1724 months of age Diagnosis: Visual assessment Palpation Lameness History – trauma Radiography Therapy: Conservative Exercise restriction Nursing restriction Application of hoof extensions Dalric shoes Need to be replaced every 2 weeks Surgical Done when no improvement is seen 23 months with carpal/tarsal deviations 2 weeks for fetlock deviations Options Periosteal Stripping Transphyseal Bridging Screws & wires = lotsa complications Staples = not used anymore Single screw = most common Bone plate *Prognosis is good if the growth plate is fixed before it closes Coboidal Bone Malformation Incomplete osffication of cartilage Associated with premature birth Acquired Flexural Deformities Two Types: Flexural deformities of distal interphalangeal joint Flexural deformities of metacarpophalangeal joint Treatment: Inferior Check Desmotomy Used if DDF is tightest and supplement with PVC splint Juvenile Bone Spavin Disease affecting the lower joint in hock Abnormal development Collapse/crushing of cuboidal bones No work or training when diagnosed Treatments: Intraarticular steroids Shoeing changes to improve breakover and restore hoof balance Rest *Wobblers = narrowing of spinal canal that pinches cord during growth Happens to larger horses ex: warmbloods, happens more in males Happens to horses how had trauma Clinical signs include incoordination, lacks awareness of limbs Therapy includes early intervention and surgical stabilization 10/7 Going Back to Equine Foot Lecture Sheared Heels Hoof Capsule distortion displacement bulb proximally One heel out of balance (overuse of one heel) Signs: Pain, subsolar bruising, quarter and heel cracks, bar fracture, pedal osteitis May initiate navicular disease Hoof wall is straighter Deep fissure base of the frog Causes: Conformational fault Incorrect Trimming Treatment: Lower wall Shoes with bars Foot into warm water 20 minutes, rubber pad and bandage Foals; trimming and glue on White Line Disease Seedy toe yeast infection Keratolytic process – progressive separation inner zone hoof wall Surface approaching coronary band Causes: Bacteria, fungus Moist climate Early signs: small powdery area along sole/wall junction, tender soles, heat Lameness Hoof tester Treatment: Correct primary cause – excessive toe length, hoof imbalance Treat affected area with foot support and therapeutic shoeing Hoof resection, debridement of tracts Medical treatment has no value without resection 5% iodine twice a week Rotation support – heart, bar, egg bar shoe Glue on shoe KEEP FEET DRY Puncture Wounds of the Foot Foreign bodies penetration Superficial majority of cases Drainage Superficial wounds with bacteria penetration Signs: Lameness, digital pulse, temperature, black spots Treatment: Tetanus, softening foot, adequate drainage Defected protected with bandage *If there is a deep puncture, treatment needs to be immediate
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