PHIL 112 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16
PHIL 112 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16 PHIL 112
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 112 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Martin Glazier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Making Sense of Ourselves in Philosophy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
POLI 150 Week 7 Notes: 10/4/16-10/6/16 10/6/16 - Current event: Russia broke off deal with US to get rid of plutonium to make nuclear weapons o Said US isn’t sufficiently disarming o Russia said they would resume disarmament if US would stop NATO occupation in Baltics and lift sanctions on Russia o Possible prisoner’s dilemma: Russia refuses to disarm (defection) because thinks US is not disarming properly o Possible ways to fix these cooperation problems Increase transparency and credibility o Possible that Russia is only doing this to get back at US for ending talks about ceasefire o Spiral of defection - Civil war: armed conflict between government and group inside same country (rebel groups) o More frequent than international wars o More people die in civil wars than interstate wars Especially after WWII Mostly directed at civilians (difficult to distinguish between civilians and military) o Longer duration than interstate wars Average length for civil wars= 6 years Average for interstate= 3 years o Civil wars often happen again: must figure out how to make negotiation that won’t cause recurrence Not common for interstate wars - Why civil wars important in international relations o Stability/security: civil wars affect regional safety/stability o Humanitarianism: other countries may feel obligation to intervene- usually hegemons have this assumed responsibility Send food, aid, etc. to help victims o Intervention: third parties intervene to end war and increase security of region, state sponsorship o Third parties have individual interests in one side or another May intervene to protect interests o Spillover into surrounding countries, contagion o Terrorism: civil wars create good opportunity for terror organizations to thrive/spread o Refugees spread to neighboring countries- can put strain on them economically o Trade: trading partners suffer during civil war Civil war country produces less and more difficult to continue distribution Partners lose goods from that country - Why civil wars happen: don’t always lead to civil war o Grievances: government discriminates against specific group in country (repression of beliefs/culture, deny access to goods/services) o Greed: one group wants to control more of country’s resources - What groups fight over: o Territory: Separatist claims: groups want to become independent Irredentist claims: groups want to attach to neighboring states Local autonomy: want more control over local matters o Policy: want to change discriminatory policies o Regime: want to change way country is ruled - Differences (ethnic/religious) by themselves don’t cause civil wars o If differences lead to discrimination, inequality, unequal distribution of resources, political exclusion, etc. THEN policy change/regime change more likely o Discrimination more likely in case of majority and minority groups - What leads to actual violence? o Rebel group-level factors: Minimize collective action problems and free-riding Through common ideology creating sense of community Size relative to government: larger size gives greater capability to fight Access to weapons: increases capability Establish trust Ability to mobilize fighters o Country-level factors: Political institutions/regime type: Ability to repress uprisings 9more difficult for democracies than authoritarian states) Legitimacy Lack of representation of different groups, institutions in place Wealth: poor countries more likely to experience civil war Resource distribution matters more/more visible Government capabilities: army, support base Population/terrain: larger population= easier to find recruits/sympathetics, rebel groups prosper in mountainous terrain o International-level factors: Foreign aid/support: training, weapons, sharing intelligence, trade (sustains economy and increases capability to fight), troops - International-level factors can play positive role too: o Resolve commitment problems o Encourage negotiation/peaceful conflict-resolution o Make it difficult for rebel groups to support themselves o Economic development and democratization Fixes cause of wealth (or lack thereof) Risk of short-term violence during transition Little control over where money goes (high corruption and inefficient spending) 10/6/16 - Current event: deal between EU and Afghanistan o EU will provide $3.75 billion to Afghanistan in aid and will send back all refugees that got denied asylum o Discussion question: How do you think EU actions will affect US actions? Could increase pressure on US because more refugees seeking asylum Not likely that it will be as great of pressure on US as in Europe because more difficult to get there o Is there responsibility of US to help out Afghanistan because of involvement in Syrian conflict? Yes, but difficult to decide what exactly to do Could provide more aid, increase refugee acceptance May no actually act on responsibility because Afghan refugees don’t have direct impact on US o Do you think treatment of Afghan refugees will impact treatment of Syrian refugees? May be trying to decrease Afghan refugees so can increase Syrian refugees - Increased risk of civil war when: all 3 factors necessary 1. Group of people motivated by grievances/greed: unsatisfied group within a country 2. Cannot pursue goals without violence- no political means to fix problems 3. Ability to recruit fighters and acquire weapons - Civil wars as bargaining failure: o Exists a bargaining range: war is costly, so there is always an option that both sies prefer to war o Two actors are government and rebel group o Incomplete information: difficult to determine capabilities, worse in civil wars than interstate wars Rebel groups have incentive to bluff, overstate their power to threaten/scare government Government usually thinks they will win war- possibility of underestimation of revel capabilities Civil wars usually have multiple factions/groups- difficult for government to determine who to fight, who is most dangerous, etc. Less ability for prewar communication- even if wars easy to determine capabilities of rebel groups, not communicated well before war Sercret nature of rebel financing: impossible to tell if rebel groups have resources to win Usually involves illegal activities Incentive to bluff Rebels have incentive to misrepresent themselves, so governments don’t usually trust what rebels say/do (rebel actions not credible) o Commitment problems: Prisoner’s dilemma: both sides have incentive to defect, especially if they think the other will Bargains create power shift Ex. Columbian government and FARC: FARC agreed to disarm and end drug trafficking in exchange for seats in government Power shift in favor of government, giving FARC a disadvantage FARC worried that government won’t hold up their end of the bargain with increased power Civil wars rarely end in negotiations, usually with victory of one side over the other - How to solve information and commitment problems: o Credible third party to enforce deal Able to punish defection - Asylum seekers must be in the country in which they want to be o Refugees can be anywhere when they apply - Refugee: outside own country, real fear of persecution in own country, unable/unwilling to go back to own country o Status granted by third party country (host of refugee camps) or UN Human Rights Council - Asylum seeker: first approved as refugee, must be in country that want asylum in - What should EU or US do about crisis? o Create/adopt new institution to make rules/standards of dealing with it Dublin Agreement obsolete- many countries don’t follow it anymore, so need a new one o Distribute burden throughout EU Countries with less refugees give more money to countries with more refugees o Should US take more refugees? Yes- should give them work permits to integrate in society and not rely on welfare Preference for skilled labor refugees (easier to integrate into society) Difficult to do because general public opinion is fear of national security Worried about increased terrorism with refugees