Microbiology: Chapter 7
Microbiology: Chapter 7 Bio 221
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Microbiology: Chapter 7 – Microbial Metabolism Enzymes o Proteins that increase the speed of chemical reactions o Lowers the activation energy Minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction o Very selective – each enzyme works for a specific reaction o Never used up by the reaction o Break down macromolecules Utilization of Energy o Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Made of adenosine and 3 phosphate groups Allows for quick and easy access to energy when needed by the cell Type of chemical energy Energy is released by breaking the chemical bonds between 2 phosphate groups o Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) What you are left with after giving up one phosphate group Needs to be recharged back into ATP Mitochondria adds a phosphate onto the end Catabolism o Breaks bonds from a large molecule to form smaller ones o Releases ATP o Cellular Respiration How we get energy from the food we eat (glucose) Glucose must be transformed into ATP to be used by the cell One molecule of glucose yields a total of 38 ATP Anaerobic Respiration Glycolysis o Doesn’t need oxygen o Occurs in the cytoplasm o Breaks glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid o Invest 2 ATP to yield 4 ATP o Glucose (6 C) 2 pyruvates (3 C each) + 2 ATP + 2 NADH o Fermentation If O2 is present, pyruvates move on to the Krebs cycle If O2 is not present, pyruvates are fermented into lactic acid Aerobic Respiration Krebs Cycle o Occurs in the mitochondria o Converts pyruvates from glycolysis into ATP o One pyruvate is oxidized One of the 3 carbons binds with oxygen and leaves the cell as CO2 Leaves Acetyl coA (2 carbons) o NAD+ and FAD pick up hydrogens from the pyruvates, charging them up Each pyruvate gives 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 Electron Transport Chain o Can produce 34 ATP o Each NADH gives 3 ATP o Each FADH2 gives 1 ATP Anabolism o Also called biosynthesis o Synthesis of cell molecules and structures o Requires ATP for building o Cells can build all macromolecules o Production is limited to nutrients available o Autotrophs Obtain all building blocks from sun energy o Heterotrophs Must consume some of the needed building blocks o Carbohydrate Biosynthesis Glucose Very important to carbohydrate synthesis The body will convert other sugars to glucose Uses. . . o Energy in glycolysis o Converted to starch and lipids to be stored o Building Carbs needed for. . . Cell walls Energy storage Sugar groups in nucleic acids Capsules and Glycocaylx Cell receptors and markers o Protein Synthesis 50% of the dry weight of the cell Needed for . . . Enzymes Membrane channels and receptors Some organisms can manufacture all amino acids, while others need to ingest some o Amphibolism Balances anabolism and catabolism Best way to meet the cell’s needs Doesn’t make things the cell doesn’t need Prevents the waste of energy or reactants o Assembly of the Cell Metabolism Within the Cell Both happen continuously in an optimal environment Anabolism: builds components Catabolism: provides energy and building blocks by breaking components apart When Cells Divide, They Must. . . Duplicate everything Produce enough macromolecules to serve 2 cells DNA replication produces duplicate copies of the cell’s genetic material Cell membrane and cell wall increase in size