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CHM1040 Week 4/5

by: Freya Kniaz

CHM1040 Week 4/5 CHM1040

Freya Kniaz

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About this Document

These notes cover chapters five and six.
Chemistry Skills and Reasoning
Dr. Andrea Matti
Class Notes
nomenclature, CHM1040, Matti
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freya Kniaz on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM1040 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Andrea Matti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Chemistry Skills and Reasoning in Chemistry at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chemistry Skills and Reasoning 1 Weeks Four and Five Chapter Five: Nomenclature - Binary compounds: composed of two elements - Binary ionic compounds: metal and nonmetal - Type I: metal present forms only one cation (group I and II metals) - the cation is always named first and the anion second - a simple cation takes its name from the name of the element - a simple anion is named by taking the first part of the element name (the root) and adding -ide - Type II: metal present can form two or more cations with different charges (d-block transition metals) - metals in these compounds can form more than one type of positive charge - charge on the metal ion must be specified with a roman numeral - transition metal cations usually require a Roman number - Binary covalent compounds: nonmetal and nonmetal - the first element in the formula is named first, and the full element is named as though it were an anion - the second element is named as though it were an anion - Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present - mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa- - the prefix mono- is never used for the naming of the first element - Polyatomic ions: charged entities composed of several atoms bound together, they must be memorized! - NH4+ ammonium - NO2- nitrite - NO3- nitrate - SO32- sulfite - SO42- sulfate - HSO4- hydrogen sulfate - OH- hydroxide - CN- cyanide - PO43- phosphate - HPO42- hydrogen phosphate - H2PO4- dihydrogen phosphate - CO32- carbonate - HCO3- hydrogen carbonate - ClO- hypochlorite - ClO2 - chlorite - ClO3- chlorate - ClO4- perchlorate - C2H3O2- acetate - MNO4- permanganate - Cr2O72- dichromate - CrO42- chromate - O22- peroxide - Just name this formulas as they are listed above - Acids: can be recognized by the hydrogen that appears first in the formula - Hal - molecule with one or more H+ ions attached to an anion Chemistry Skills and Reasoning 2 - If the anion does NOT contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic attached to the root name for the element - If the anion contains oxygen, the suffix -ic is added to the root name if the anion name ends in -ate (Ate something icky.); the suffix -ous is added to the root name if the anion name ends in -ite Chapter Six: An Introduction to Chemical Reactions - Some clues that a chemical reaction has occurred: the color changes, a solid forms, bubbles form, heat and/or fame is produced, or heat is absorbed - Chemical reactions often give a visual signal but reactions are not always visible. - Why do chemical reactions occur? - Molecules collide and transfer kinetic energy - This energy breaks bonds - Atoms come back together and form more stable species, i.e. less energy - outside forces can be added to reactions to induce a reaction, i.e. pressure, temperature, solvents - Chemical reactions involve changing the ways atoms are grouped. - A chemical equation represents a chemical reaction: reactants are shown to the left of the arrow while products are shown to the right of the arrow - All atoms present in the reactants must be accounted for in the products. They must be balanced! - Physical states of compounds are often given in a chemical equation: solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), and aqueous (aq) - The principle that lies at the heart of the balancing process is that atoms are conserved in a chemical reaction —> atoms are neither created nor destroyed - The same number of each type of atom is found among the reactants AND among the products - Chemists determine the identity of the reactants and products of a reaction by experimental observation - The identities (formulas) of the compounds must never be changed in balancing a chemical equation - How to write and balance equations: - Read the description of the chemical reaction. What are the reactants, the products, and their states? Write the appropriate formulas - Write the unbalanced equation that summarizes the information from step one - Balance the equation by inspection, starting with the most complicated molecule - Check to see that the coefficients used give the same number of each type of atom on both sides of the arrow. Also check to see that the coefficients used are the smallest whole number integers that give the balanced equation


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