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CHM1040 Week 6

by: Freya Kniaz

CHM1040 Week 6 CHM1040

Freya Kniaz

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter seven.
Chemistry Skills and Reasoning
Dr. Andrea Matti
Class Notes
chemical, reactions, CHM1040, Matti, WSU
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freya Kniaz on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM1040 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Andrea Matti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Chemistry Skills and Reasoning in Chemistry at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chemistry Skills and Reasoning 1 Week Six Chapter Seven: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions - Most chemists can predict reactions based on their own experiences; however, there are certain phenomenon that happen that can help us predict why a reaction will take place - For driving forces favor chemical change: - formation of a solid - formation of water - Transfer of electrons - formation of gas - Precipitation: a reaction in which a solid forms (solid = precipitate) - When an ionic compound dissolve in water, the ions separate and move around independently - Strong electrolyte: each unit of the substance that dissolves in water produces separated ions - How to decide what products form —> Solubility rules - Most nitrate salts are soluble. - Most salts of Na+, K+ and NH4+ are soluble. - Most chloride saltes are soluble. Exceptions: AgCl, PbCl2, and Hg2Cl2. - Most sulfate salts are soluble. Exceptions: BaSO4, PbSO4, and CaSO4. - Most hydroxide compounds are insoluble. Exceptions: NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH02, Ca(OH)2. - Most sulfide, carbonate, and phosphate salts are insoluble. - How to predict precipitates when solutions of two ionic compounds are mixed: - Write the reactants as they actually exist before any reaction occurs. Remember that when a salt dissolves, its ions separate. - Consider the various solids tat could form. TO do this, simply exchange the anions of the added salts - Use the solubility rules to decide whether a solid forms and, if so, to predict the identity of the solid. - Molecular Equation: shows the complete formulas of all reactants and products (what we are used to) - It does not give a very clear picture of what actually occurs in solution - Complete ionic equation: all strong electrolytes are shown as ions - includes spectator ions - ions which do not participate directly in a reaction in solution - Net Ionic Equation: only those components of the solution that undergo a change - spectator ions are NOT shown - Arrhenius Acids and Bases - A strong acid is one in which virtually every molecule dissociates (ionizes) in water to an H+ ion and anion - HClO4, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HClO3, Hol, HNO3 - A strong base is a metal hydroxide that is completely soluble in water, giving separate OH- ions and cations - NaOH and KOH - The products of the reaction of a strong acid and a strong base are water and salt - Reaction of H+ and OH- is called an acid-base reaction - The net ionic equation for the reaction of a strong acid and a strong base is always the same: it shows the production of water. - Oxidation-Reduction Reaction: between metals and nonmetals that involve a transfer of electrons Chemistry Skills and Reasoning 2 - A metal-nonmetal reaction can always be assumed to be an oxidation-reduction reaction, which involves electron transfer - Two nonmetals can also undergo an oxidation-reduction reaction. At this point we can recognize these cases only by looking for O2 as a reactant or product. When two nonmetals react, the compound formed is not ionic - Combustion Reactions: involve oxygen and produce energy (heat) so rapidly that a flame results - Synthesis: a compound is formed by simpler materials - Decomposition: a compound is broken down into simpler substances


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