Chapter 9 Notes - Joints
Chapter 9 Notes - Joints BMSP 2135
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMSP 2135 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Theresa Gillian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
CHAPTER 9 NOTES Joints Bony Immovable joint Also known as synostosis When gap between two bones ossifies Occurs in either fibrous or cartilaginous joints Fibrous Bound by collagen fibers 3 types: o Sutures – immovable/slightly movable; bound to the skull Serrate- interlocking Lap- overlapping Plane (butt)- straight, nonoverlapping o Gomphoses – use of a periodontal ligament Tooth to jawbone o Sydesmoses – bound by a longer collagenous fiber; has more mobility Interosseous membrane Cartilaginous 2 types o Synchondroses – bound by hyaline cartilage o Symphyses – bound by fibrocartilage Synovial Separated by a joint cavity Freely movable More complex most familiar contains: o articular cartilage o joint cavity o synovial fluid o joint capsule accessory structures: o tendons o ligaments o bursa o tendon sheaths Mechanical Advantage: advantage conferred by a layer- o to exert more force against a resisting object than the force applied to the lever o to move the resisting object farther or faster than the effort arm is moved o a single lever cannot confer both advantages mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever- the ratio of its output force to its input force calculated from the length of the effort arm divided by the length of the resistance arm MA > 1.0 – the lever produces more force, but less speed and distance, than the force exerted on it MA < 1.0 – the lever produces more speed or distance, but less force than the input Range of Motion Determined by: o Structure of the articular surfaces o Strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules o Action of the muscles and tendons Axes of rotation- o Monaxial- one degree o Biaxial- two degrees o Multiaxial- three degrees Types of Synovial Joints- Ball-and-Socket Joints Condyloid Joints Saddle Plane Hinge Pivot Abduction- movement away from the midline Adduction- movement back toward the midline Elevation- raises Depression- lowers Protraction- anterior movement Retraction- posterior movement Temporomandibular Joint- Articulation of the condyle of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone The Shoulder Joint- Glenohumeral or humeroscapular joint- the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula The Coxal Joint The head of the femur inserts into the acetabulum of the hip bone Acetabular labrum Fovea capitis The Knee Joint Tibiofemoral joint- largest and most complex diarthrosis of the body Medial and lateral meniscus absorb shock and shape joint Two ligaments deep within joint capsule that cross each other to form an X
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