ETHNOMU 50 A - Week 2 Notes
ETHNOMU 50 A - Week 2 Notes Ethnomu 50A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Franca Park on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ethnomu 50A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Harrison, Charley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Week 2 – 10/04/16 Song structure Don’t begin song improvising right away; play melody Chorus – going through the melody; go to the top of the form (cycle) to play the melody again Accompanying role – everyone minus the soloist Leader is not always in the solo/melody role Rhythm section can include piano, bass, drums, accordion, etc., can support harmonically and play chords, responsible for keeping the beat together Generally balance solos Once you cycle through all the improvisers, go back and play melody again Head = melody Solo and accompany roles rotate If only one musician, he/she has to take on both roles How rhythm section instruments accompany the melody Banjo projects more than acoustic guitar Piano, guitar, banjo are primary harmonic/chord playing instruments, improvise chords in a syncopated fashion to provide harmonies and rhythmic interest, improvising the placement of the chords; compliments and supports both the melody and the improviser Rhythm guitar – style of guitar playing, play one chord for each beat in a measure, allows guitar to play with piano or another instrument without cacophony/interference Bass is primary time keeper, create own melodic bass line (“walking bass”) Drums help with keeping the time, left hand used for accenting, right hand for hi hat, feet support what hands are doing Drum set = drum kit = trap set Melody role Has to remember the chord changes Need to be able to create melody on the spot and stay within frame of chord changes Need to remember what he/she has already played in order to create something interesting to listen to rather than just repetition Stay within the character of the piece, fast and up beat or slow ballad Interact with the other members of the band aka must be able to listen well Origins of jazz New Orleans is the commonly accepted birthplace of jazz o Great ethnic diversity, most cosmopolitan city in the U.S. at that time, many diff. races and cultures living in proximity o Extremely busy seaport, ships from all over the globe passing through New Orleans Developed from the popular music styles of the late 1800s, blended and combined for the entertainment of social dancers, social dancing was the one of the only means in which people could gather and “party,” bc no radio, television, internet, etc., live music accompanied these events o A lot of work for musicians, more work for musicians than there were actual musicians in New Orleans Popular music styles that led to the emergence of jazz 1. Ragtime o Borrowed musical forms from classical music or brass bands o Incorporated rhythmic syncopation o Didn’t have jazz swing feeling o Ragging of tunes – take existing melody and change up the rhythm; syncopate it o Did not incorporate much improvisation o Scott Joplin – composer and pianist, 18681917 o James Reese Europe – band leader, composer, conductor, arranger, 18801919 2. Blues o Developed primarily from work songs of slaves o Associated with the music of street vendors, used their voice for advertisement, accompany themselves w/ an instrument 3. Brass band music o Similar to marching band, centerpiece/anchor of parades, instruments were primarily brass (trumpet, bugle, cornet, trombone, tuba, baritone horn, French horn) Intermingling of musical styles jazz o Buddy Bolden – trumpet player, first person to incorporate personal creativity into his performance, 18771932 o Jelly Roll Morton – pianist and composer, first jazz composer, first to show that elements of a jazz performance could be written down, 18901941 o Freddie Kepplard – trumpet player, 18901993 o Louis Armstrong – most important jazz musician, 19011971 Week 2 – 10/06/16 Origins of jazz Improvisation aspect of jazz came from blues and the syncopation/swing feel element came from ragtime In the late 1800s, there was a great need of entertainment in News Orleans Diff cultures were blended/integrated New Orleans = center of the slave trade Blues = express feelings African American vs. Caucasian musicians African American musicians didn’t have much of the musical training that Caucasian/Creoles had African American musicians tended to have to learn music by ear predisposed to become improvisers, not good at reading music Discussion 2 – 10/07/16 Review Improvisation can be rhythmic and melodic Most drum solos, accompaniment drops out Solos are guided by specific frameworks/conditions o Chord changes o Tempo/rhythm of the song o What the other musicians are playing, adding “fills” o Audience’s expectations Jazz musicians have to focus on what their playing and what others are playing; collaborative art form Blues influences jazz bc it’s about individual expression, feelings come out in what you’re playing and how you’re playing Leader books the gigs, selects musician, takes role in arranging the song, etc., might not even take a solo Sidemen can take solos, even can take a longer solo than the leader Musician can be a leader in one gig and a sideman in another gig AABA = 32 bars Muskrat Ramble by Louis Armstrong 1926 Trombone solo cornet solo clarinet solo Vibrato in Armstrong’s cornet solo Crescendo AABB Piano and banjo provides harmony Elements of Music Melody – theme or tune of a song Harmony – comprised of chord changes Rhythm – how we structure time in music, timing of melody; can place notes differently in time as the music proceeds Timbre – what distinguishes the sounds of each instruments from other instruments; tone color or sound quality of a particular instrument Essay #1 Research https://ccle.ucla.edu/mod/page/view.php?id=122148 https://guides.library.ucla.edu/jazz scholar.google.com jstor.org Visit and search the Music Library in SMB, use the Library Catalog to find specific items Format Develop a clear thesis that guides your analysis and is supported by examples drawn from your research Organize supporting points into paragraphs, each starting with a topic sentence and including evidence to flesh out your point 1. Opening paragraph (thesis) 2. Body paragraph (supporting points) 3. Conclusion (restatement of thesis and major points you have used to support it) Provide clear transitions between sentences and between paragraphs Cite quotes, paraphrases, etc. Avoid vague statements/judgments Chicago or MLA style
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