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Chapter 6: Reinforcement beyond habit

by: Brittany Woody

Chapter 6: Reinforcement beyond habit EAB3002

Marketplace > University of Florida > EAB3002 > Chapter 6 Reinforcement beyond habit
Brittany Woody

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Lecture notes for chapter 6
Principles of Behavior Analysis
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAB3002 at University of Florida taught by Stagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 6 Reinforcement: Beyond Habit - Shaping: reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior; reinforce steps toward goal behavior; Skinner rewarded pigeon for getting closer to a full turn and eventually it did a full turn - Tips for shapers: • reinforce small steps • provide immediate reinforcement; don’t wait for more behavior; used conditioned reinforcer like a clicker or praise • provide small primary reinforcers like small pieces of food; large reinforcers take time and divert behavior • do not be hung up on specific plan; subject may skip steps; plan should not be too specific back up when necessary; retrain earlier parts • - Chaining: a series of learned actions performed in a particular sequence; like an animal in a maze/ obstacle course’ making a telephone call or dining in a restaurant • teaching a subject to perform the chain; task analysis: break the sequence into parts • forward chaining: train beginning segments first • backward training: train last segments first • completion of each part sets the occasion for the next part; completion of first part signals beginning of second part, etc - Learned Helplessness: Seligman strapped dog into harness and paired a shock to tone; put it in a shuttle box where it can escape, but after being shocked without escape, it does not escape; learns to be helpless/ apathy - Immunization training: immunization group had lever press to escape shock; helpless group could not escape shock; immunization group continued to jump in a shuttle box to try to escape the shock for 200 trials but the helpless rats did not jump at all - Could be analogous to depression 1 - Superstition: any behavior that occurs although it does not produce the consequence; consequence is not contingent upon behavior but are merely contagious with behavior • 6/8 pigeons in Skinner study developed superstition • can explain human superstition - Creativity: defining characteristic is novelty, something new; behavior science looks at the history of reinforcement; Pryor started session with bell sound and reinforced novel behaviors, eventually they would continue to do new things - Problem solving: a situation in which reinforcement i available, but the behavior necessary to produce it is not; behavior necessary to produce reinforcement is emitted to solve problem - Insight: a sudden flash of understanding; a reorganization of the mental representation of the problem; objectively: a problem is solved and there is no known training or experience that accounts for the solution - Kohler placed food outside chimps cage; gave him two bamboo rods that individually could not reach food; when Sultan the chimp put the two rods together, he could reach the food, Kohler called this insight - Kohler hung banana above chimp and eventually they would stack boxes to reach banana; called this insight - Epstein: pigeon required to push box over green dot and to peck banana; gave pigeon a box without the dot and a banana hung out of reach; pigeon exhibits novel behavior of moving box under banana to reach it; due to insight or automatic chaining - Automatic chaining: a situation in which one behavior accidentally produces a stimulus that makes another behavior more likely - Insight cannot be measured; automatic chaining can be seen, is more parsimonious (simple) - Self Control: exhibiting will power, discipline; causation is found in behavior- environmental interactions; immediate vs. delayed reactions • physical restraint: lock it away, throw it away • distancing: leave/avoid situation • monitor behavior: record what you're doing 2 • social consequences: tell other people what your goals are - If behavior is determined by environment and heredity, are humans simply automatons (robots)?; determinism is not fatalism, organisms learn, learning provides choices, choice is autonomy - Self awareness: ability to observe your own behavior; from infancy, we are taught to detect internal sensations like hunger, pain, etc; not uniquely human trait 3


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