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Sample upload do not buy

by: Chelsea Gonzales

Sample upload do not buy MUS107

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Chelsea Gonzales
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These are my notes from Professor Sullivan Music 107 course. We had a guest speaker on Monday of 10/3, we also covered the introduction of cultures and music in the 1500c China. This also includes ...
Music in World Cultures
Kirk Sullivan
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Gonzales on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS107 at University of Hawaii taught by Kirk Sullivan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Music in World Cultures in Music at University of Hawaii.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Claire is from South Korea but has lived in HI for 4 years. She attended Kaiser High school, and is now 2nd year in college. Her major is Music and Computer science. Her favorite type of music is Classical and Jazz. She is a piano major, but she considers herself “bad at playing the piano” Alan Merriam’s​ Three-part model*​ of music culture (nettl p.10) - Sounds - Behaviors - Ideas What kinds of music do ethnomusicologist study? - Traditional - Folk - Popular - Classical - Jazz - (ALL) Some questions ethnomusicologists ask - What does music mean to participants? - Who participates? - How is music associated with identity? - How does music convey meaning? - What function does music serve in society? - Who owns the music? - Does text accompany the music? - What is the significance of the language used? - How is music culture taught/learned? - If through notation, what kind of notation? Some issues ethnomusicologist study - Political - Gender - Ethnicity - Globalization - Nationalism - Colonialism - Tourism - Diaspora (spreading of the group of people away from their homeland) Problems we face* - Imagining others in the image of ourselves (descriptive chauvinism) - Exoctism- seeing others as completely different from outselves (romantic chauvinism) - Imagining one’s own music culture as superior (normative chauvinism) - Imagining the past as paradise (arcadian chauvinism) - Suspending all judgement (normative skepticism) - Stereotypes CHAUVINISM: self orientation, sense of superiority Relativism p.8 -Each society has a music system that suits its own culture - Each music should be considered in relation to the culture in which it exists Glossary words: ★ Pitch ○ Highness/lowness of sound ★ Interval ○ Distance between 2 pitches ★ Scale ○ Series of pitches in a ascend/ descend ★ Intensity ○ Perceived loudness/softness ★ Timbre ○ Particular voice of an instrument ★ Rhythm ○ The temporal relationships within music ★ Meter ○ The regular pulse of most west. Classical music and its division into grouping of 2,3,4,6 beats. ★ Tempo ○ Rate at which music is played ★ Melody ○ Sequence of pitches, aka tune, heard as the foreground of music ★ Chord ○ 3 or more pitches sounding simultaneously ★ Harmony ○ A collective sound of series of chords, serving as a support to a melody. ★ Form ○ Structure of a piece as determined by qualities, intensities, pitches & durations; sections (typically) ★ Vocables ○ An alternative word for nonsense syllables ★ Texture ○ The perceived relationship of simultaneous musical sounds ○ How melody and harmony interact ■ Monophony- “one” + “sound” ● Literally a single sound; a single melodic line sounded by one voice or instrument, or more than one, sounding the same melody at the same time ○ Catholic gregorian chant ■ Heterophony- “diverse” + “sound” ● A musical texture in which two or more parts sound almost the same melody at almost the same time; often with parts ornamented differently ○ Irish “session” ■ Playing the same melody but putting different styles into it ■ Homophony - “same” + “sound” ● A musical texture, as in western hymn, where th​ arts perform different pitches but move in the same rhythm ● Single melody supported by harmony ○ Hawai’i Aloha Punahou 2005 ○ Or Hallelujah -Leonard Cohen ■ Melody supported my harmony ■ Polyphony- “many”+”sounds” ● A musical texture in which​ two or more parts move in contrasting directions at the same time ● Multiple melodies simultaneously ○ Basin street blues Instrument classification (Organology) ● Hornbostel-Sachs Classification (1914) ○ Attempts to classify ALL musical instruments ○ Based on p​ rimary source of vibration 1. Idiophone: bodies themselves vibrate to produce sound a. Further classified by the way they are made to vibrate: i. Struck, plucked, friction, blown 2. Membranophone: sound produced by stretched membrane a. Further classified by t​ ay they are made to vibrate: i. struck , plucked friction, singing membranes 1. Ex: Maestro marcos, cuica master 3. Chordophone: sound produced by vibrating string stretched between two points a. Further classified by structure: i. Simple (without integral resonator) or composite (with integral resonator) 4. Aerophone: Sound primarily produced by vibrating air a. Further classified by structure: i. Free (air not contained within) and non-free(air contained within) ● Pros: ○ Supports comparison of instruments across cultures ○ Numbering scheme allows cross cultural use ○ Gives precise definitions for each category ○ Universal scope ● Cons ○ Does not use individual cultures’ classifications schemes ○ Sub-categorizations schemes vary ○ Many alternative approaches ( Observations on performance: DHRUPAD VOCAL MUSIC - One of the oldest examples of classical hindustani music- North India ● Polyphony ○ Has many people singing/different similar sounds ● Behaviors ○ Outfits were very cultural ○ They were sitting ○ Hand movements different while the singing the same ■ expression ● Instruments: ○ Tanpura/Tambura drone ○ Pakhavaj/Pakhawaja ● Sound ○ Tempo change w drum ○ Chordophones ○ meter/pulse/3+2 ○ Dynamic change ○ Two handed drum, that had two different pitches because of the different size heads RAGA: “that which colors the mind” ● A Scale PLUS ○ A number of pitches, manner of ascending/descending, predominant pitch. ○ Consists of 5-7 notes (svara) ○ Uses of solfege syste​ a ri ga ma pa da ni sa ○ Hundreds​ of radas in common use ● Ragas are assoc. With: ○ An emotion ○ Color ○ Animal ○ Deity ○ Season of the year ○ Time of day ○ Magical powers ● Example of Ragas: Rag kirwani(harmonic minor) & Rag Adana & Rag Shankara Metrical system: Tala - Time cycle or meter - 35 talas in carnatic music - Four most common talas in sue today: - Puaka Tala (1+2=3) - Khanda Chapu Tala (2+3=5) - Misra Chapu Tala (3+2+2=7) - Adi Tala (4+2+2=8) - Clap, pinky ring middle, clap, wave, clap, wave. Rhythmic transmission in indian music: Solkattu (vocables imitating drum strokes) - Improvisatory style based one hundreds of learned or invented rhythmic patterns - Percussionist learn rhythm via s ​ ollukatu - Ea. vocable represents a different drum stroke - Ex: ta ka ki di mi gu na lan tan nam tom - Rhythmic patterns are performed on top of tala (metric cycle) - Section ending are marked with a threefold repetition of a rhythmic pattern called mora - Sam​ is the first beat of the tala Carnatic music concert (Nettl 41-46) 1. Varnam​: etude or technical study on a raga 2. 7-10 kritis (songs) 3. Main K ​ riti 4. Lighter songs such as ​bhajans, ​ devotional songs Kriti - Major carnatic song type - Fixed and improvised sections - Structure - Alapana: ​ ​free rhythm​ improvisation on the raga - Tanam​ (optional): p ​ ulsed​ improvisation of the raga - Kriti​ (3 sections):​ etered​ song in a raga and tala - Pallavi​ (“sprouting”)- 1-2 fixed lines of text and melody - Anupallavi​ (“after sprouting”)- 2-4 lines of text with extension of melody - Caranam o ​ r Charanam (“foot”)-​ ​ uch larger text section, new melodic material - Types of improvisation - Niraval:​ melodic improvisation using a phrase from the text - Swarakalpana:​ melodic improvisation using the names of the notes (sa ri ga ma) Track 2 CD 1 - LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN **Example kriti: “Banturiti” - Raga: Hamsanadam (“Call of the swan”) - A pleasant, joyous evening raga - Tala: Adi - Text: - Pallavi​: “Bantu riti kolu viya vayya rama” - (O lord rama! Give me the privilege of being in your service as a servitor) - Anupallavi​: “Tunta vinti vani modalaina; mada dula batti nela gula jeyu nija” - (The guards post should be such that he is empowered to destroy all the demons which are the six passions of the mind) - Caranam​: “Roman camane gana kancukamu; Rama bhaktudane mudra billayu; Rama nama mane vara kedgamivi; Ra jillunayya tyagaraju nike” - (Bless me with emblem (“murdra”) of Ramabhakti, given a sword (“Kedgamivi”) called Rama Naama (the name of Rama) to perform the guards job. O lord! All these will shine on the person of this tyagaraja Nettl 36-46 Titon 277-288 After the Kriti ● Lighter, less demanding songs ○ Lyrical songs such as padams and Javali ○ Hindu devotional songs, B ​ hajan ○ Hindustani instruments - Sitar - Plucked fretted chordophone, like veena - 6 plucked, 18-20 strings total - - All of their instruments were petite - They were sitting in a circle, facing each other - Tempo - Flute lead - No voice Jiangnan Sizhu: (Nettl pp. 103-105) Silk and bamboo music - “Song of happiness” huanle ge - Amateur chamber music in southeast China - “​ ilk and bamboo” ​string and wind instruments - Performed ​Informally​ in ​teahouses - Between 2 and 20 performances, varying between tunes - Heterophony - Each instrument improvises its own ornamentation to a common melody - Called ​“adding flowers” ​ jiahua) - Played by memory (no sheet music) Track 12, Nettl CD 1 “Embellished Three Six” “​Eight sounds​ (materials) 1. Metal-​ eg., bells, cymbals 2. Stone- ​eg., stones chimes 3. Earth(or clay)​- eg., ocarina 4. Leather (or hide)- ​ g., drums 5. Silk-​ g., strings instruments 6. Wood-​ eg., wooden box, wooden tiger 7. Gourd-​ eg., mouth organ 8. Bamboo-​ eg., flutes Jiangnan​ means “south of the yangtze river” ● Chordophone (“silk”) ○ Erhu, Zhonghu- ​ 2 string bowed lute ■ “Hu” meant “barbarian,” now “imported” ○ Pipa-​ 4 stringed fretted lute ■ Imported 6th c. CE ○ Sanxian-​ fretted long necked 3-string lute ○ Yueqin-​ short necked fretted lute ○ Yangqin-​ hammered dulcimer ■ Imported 16th CE ● Aerophones (“Bamboo”) ○ Dizi-​ side blown flute with buzzing membrane ○ Xiao-​ end blown (vertical) flute ○ Sheng-​ mouth organ ○ Suona-​ double reed shawm ● Idiophones ○ Bangu-​ drum ○ Paiban-​ clapper CHINA Intro: ● 1.3 billion people ● 56 ethnic groups (“nationalities”) ● Majority ethnic group: Han (92%) ● 292 languages ● 22 provinces ● 5 autonomous regions “Silk road” - Major network of trading routes - From ~200 BCE to ~1450 CE Han Chinese Musical Categories - Folk song - Narrative song - Theatrical Music - Song and Dance Music - Instrumental Music Qin(or Guqin “ancient qin”) - 7-string plucked ​zither - Zither: resonating body spans entire length of strings - Instrument of the literati and sages (said to have been played by Confucius, 5th-6th BCE) - Long history of notates music- from 9th c. CE - ~500 BCE: Confucius played qin - 300 BCE: Qin accompanied poetry, played Summary ** ● China majority culture: Han ○ 1 of 56 ethnicities ● Han conception of music ○ Folk song, narrative, theatrical, song and dance, instrumental Jingju Features ● Actors combine four skills: ○ Singing, speech, acting, fighting ● Costumes and makeup are elaborate ○ Indicate gender, age, wealth, ethnicity, role in society ● Movement and gestures convey status ○ Stylized hand gestures ○ Exaggerated body movements ● Stage props are simple- portability Main Jingju characters ● Actors specialize in 1 of 4 roles: ○ Sheng- Male role ○ Dan- Female role ○ Jing- painted face, powerful or courageous male ○ Chou- comic male role ● Each main role type has numerous subtypes ○ Elder woman, foolish magistrate, young man RETURN OF POP MUSIC - 1970s “Carbo pop” emerged from Hong Kong - Cantones language Many songs translated into Mandarin from mainland market - Inspired by western pop/rock/jazz/R&B Pop music: (NORTHWEST WIND) - Regional style that became popular in late 1980s - Regional folk song (shanxi, gansu) - Aggressive rock/disco beat - Synthesized accomplishment Pop music: Rock - NOT government sponsored popular music - From mid1980s - Un-publicized “parties” Having nothing by Cui Jian (1986) - “Most famous” chinese rock musician - Combined pop/rock sound with chinese instruments - Rejects new materialism in china - Accuses government corruption - Calls to actions idealistic youth - Led to 1989 anti-government protest in tiananmen square Guzheng (or Zheng) - 21 string zither with movable bridges - Folk instrument “Twelve girl band” - Formed in 2001 targeting Japanese and other international audiences, later popular in China - Undermining integrity of Chinese music or revitalizing it 20th c. Key events - 1911: Republic formed - 1919: May 4 movement - 1949: communist PRC formed - 1966-1976 China summary Jiangnan Sizhu - Heterophony, adding flowers, eight sounds, instruments Han Culture - Qin, pipa - Programmatic music - Silk road - Tablature notation: jianzipu Jingju - ROLS, CONFUCIANISM, WENCHANG, QUCHANG, INSTRUMENTS, ARIAS 20th century - School songs - Shanghai pop - Songs for the masses - Model opera - Canto pop - Xibeifeng - rock


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