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Unit 3 part 1

by: Alexandra Graham

Unit 3 part 1 Bio 1103K

Alexandra Graham
GPA 4.0
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Prokaryotic fission and the cell cycle
Intro to Bio
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Graham on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Sylvester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Bio in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Bio Notes: Cellular Reproduction Part 1 10/6 Cell division: parent cells splits into 2 daughter cells  DNA necessary for cell division DNA BASES:  A- adenine  T- thymine  G- guanine  C-cytocine Chromosome= DNA and protein Bases always pair A+T, C+G One nucleotide= 1 sugar, 1 phosphate, and one base Chromosome= DNA tightly wound around histones  DNA only winds into a chromosome when it is ready to divide; every other time it stays chromatin 3 Types of Cell: 1) Stem cells: constantly dividing, limited number in your body (pretty much gone by late adulthood 2) Other cells that can divide: only divide when told; i.e. skin cells (only divide when you get a cut) 3) Permanently differentiated cells: never divide (brain cells, nerve cells) Meiosis: sexual reproduction (two gametes fuse) Mitosis: asexual reproduction (cloning; most common form of reproduction on planet) Clones evolve through plasmid exchange Many organisms can do both and turn to sexual repro. when in need of genetic diversity Prokaryotic Fission 1) Circular chromosome attaches to cell wall, replicates itself 2) Chromosomes move to opposite ends of cell 3) Middle of cell pinches together until 2 cells form -FISSION IS DIFFERENT FROM MITOSIS Eukaryotes:  46 chromosomes, linear (not circular)  Genes=proteins  Loci= location of genes on a chromosome -Chromosomes always stay attached at centromere during division  2 identical strands= chromatids  2 chromatids attached at centromere= chromosome  2 individual strands after chromatids divide= chromosomes -All your cells have the exact same DNA, the only difference is what genes are expressed -Homologous chromosomes= chromosomes that pair (chromosome 1 & 1, never chromosome 1 & 7) Why do we look different? Same genes, different alleles Cell Cycle (cell division) Most cells in interphase (time between division) 1) Growth phase 1 (G1): acquire nutrients and grow 2) Synthesis (S): DNA synthesis; every chromosome is replicated 3) Growth phase 2 (G2): finish growing and prepares for division; replicate every organelle G0 refers to cells that aren’t in the process of dividing (they can come back to G1 at any time) Mitosis (PMAT_ 1) Prophase: nucleus dissipates, chromosomes condense, centrioles make spindle fibers which attach to centrioles; make kinetochore (“scooter” that allows chromosomes to move around) 2) Metaphase (middle phase): chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell 3) Anaphase: sister chromatids separate (become individual chromosomes), move to opposite poles 4) Telophase: chromosomes decondense, turn into chromatin in nucleus, contractile ring (made out of cytoplasm) pinches middle until 2 cells separate


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