CES210 Chapter Seven Notes
CES210 Chapter Seven Notes CES 210
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CES 210 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Mai Phillips in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Conservation and Environmental Science in GN Natural Science at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
CES210:ConservationandEnvironmentalScience ChapterSeven: HumanPopulations POPULATIONGROWTH - In 2013thetotalworld populationwas at least 7.2billion peopleand wasgrowing at 1.13%per year Human populationgrew slowly untilrelatively recently - Formostof ourhistory,humanshavenot been very numerouscompared to otherspecies. Studies ofhunting andgathering societies suggestthat thetotal worldpopulation wasprobably only afew million peoplebeforetheinvention of agriculture andthe domesticationof animals around10,000yearsago - Untilthemiddle Ages,humanpopulationswere held in check by diseases, famines,and wars that madelife shortand uncertain formost people. Furthermore,there is evidence that many early societies regulated their populationsize throughcultural taboosand practices suchas abstinenceand infanticide - Manyfactors contributedto this rapid growth.Increased sailing andnavigating skills stimulated commerce andcommunication between nations.Agricultural developments,bettersources of power,and better health care and hygienealso played a role. - It tookall of humanhistory to reach 1 billion peoplein 1804,butlittle morethan 150yearsto reach 3billion in 1960 PERSPECTIVESON POPULTATION GROWTH Does environment orcultural controlhumanpopulations? - In 1798ThomasMalthus(1766-1834)wroteAnEssayonthePrincipleof Population, changing theway European leaders thoughtabout populationgrowth.Malthusmarshaled evidence to showthat populationstended to increase at an exponential, orcompound,ratewhilefood productioneither remained stableorincreased only slowly. Technology can increase carrying capacity forhumans - Whetherthe worldcan continueto feed its growing populationremains to be seen, but technological advances havevastlyincreased humancarrying capacity so far - Theburst of worldpopulation growththat began 200yearsago was stimulated by scientific and industrialrevolutions. Progressin agricultural productivity,engineering, information technology, commerce, medicine, sanitation,and otherachievements ofmodern life havemadeit possible to supportthousandsoftimes as many peopleper unit areaas was possible10,000yearsago - Muchof ourgrowthand rising standard ofliving in thepast 200years, however,has been based on easily acquired naturalresources, especially cheap, abundantfossilfuels - I = PATFormula: This says that ourenvironmentalimpacts are (I)are theproduct ofour populationsize (P)timeaffluence(A)and thetechnology(T) used to producethe goodand services weconsume - Ifbillions of peoplein Asia,Africa, and Latin America wereto reach thelevels of consumption nowenjoyedby rich peoplein NorthAmerica orEurope,using thesame technologythat provides that lifestyletoday,the environmental effects willundoubtedlybe disastrous Populationgrowthcould bring benefits - Mostpeople mean larger markets,more workers,and efficiencies ofscale in massproductionof good.Moreover, addingpeople boostshumaningenuity and intelligence that will create new resources by finding newmaterials and discovering new waysof doing things MANYFACTORSDETERMINE POPULATION GROWTH - Theterm demographyis derived fromtheGreek wordsdemos(people)and graphos(towriteor to measure).Demography encompassesvitalstatistics aboutpeople, such as births, deaths,and wherethey live, as well as totalpopulationsize How manyof usare there? - We live in two very differentdemographicworlds.One is old,rich, and relatively stable. The otheris young,poor,andgrowing rapidly. Mostpeoplein Asia,Africa, and Latin America inhabit thelatter demographicworld.These countries represent 80%oftheworld populationbut more than 90%ofall projected growth - Somecountries in the developing worldhaveexperienced amazing growthrates andast expected to reach extraordinary population sizes bythe middleof the21 century. Even though Chinawas themostpopulouscountythroughoutthe20 century, Indiais expected to pass Chinain the 21 century. - Japan,which has 127million residents now,is expected to shrink to about100million by2050. Europe, which nowmakes upabout 12%oftheworld population,will constituteless than 7%in 50years, if current trendscontinue. Even theUnited States and Canadawouldhavenearly stablepopulationsif immigration werestopped - It isn’t onlywealthy countries that havedeclining populations.Russiais nowdeclining by nearly 1 million peopleper yearas death rates havesoared and birth rates haveplummeted Fertility rates are falling in many countries - Themost accessible demographicstatistic offertility is usually the crude birth rate, thenumber of birthsin ayear perthousandpersons.It is statistically “crude” in thesensethat it is not adjustedforpopulationcharacteristics such as thenumberofwomen in reproductiveage - Zero population growth(ZPG) occurs whenbirths plus immigration in apopulationjust equal death plus emigration. It takes several generations of replacement level fertility (wherepeople justreplace themselves)to reach ZPG.Where infantsmortality rates are high,the replacement level may befiveor morechildren percouple - According to theWorld Health Organization,100out ofthe world’s220countriesare nowat or below areplacement rate of2.1children per couple, andby 2050allbut afew ofthe least- developed countries are expected to havereached that milestone. - Formanyof thesecountries, populationgrowthwill continuefora generation becausethey havesuch alarge numberofyoungpeople. Mortality offsetsbirths - Crudedeath rate subtractedfrom crudebirth rate gives thenatural increase ofthepopulation. We distinguishnaturalincrease fromthe totalgrowth rate, which includes immigration and emigration, as well as births and deaths Life spanand life expectancy describe ourpotentiallongevity - Life spanis theoldest ageto which a species is knowntosurvive - Althoughthere aremany claims in ancient literature ofkings living amillennium ormore, the oldest age that can becertified by written records was that ofJeannaLouiseCalment ofArles, France, whowas 122years old at death in 1997.Theaging process is still a medical mystery,but it appears thatcells in our bodies havealimited ability to repair damageand producenew components.Atsomepoint,they simply wearout, and wefallvictim to disease, degeneration, accidents, orsenility - Women almost alwayshavehigher life expectancies than men. Worldwide, theaverage differencebetween sexes in three years, but in Russiathedifferencebetween men and women is 14 years Living longer has demographicimplications - Both rapidly growingcountries andslowly growing countries can haveaproblem with their dependency ratio, orthenumberofnonworkingcompared to workingindividuals in a population Emigration and immigration are important demographicfactors - Manycountries are trying to limit immigration, but themore-developedregions areexpected to gain about 2 million new residents per yearforthenext 50years. Without migration,the populationof thewealthiest countries wouldalready be declining and wouldbemorethan 126 million less than thecurrent 1.2billion by2050 - Somenationsencourage, or even force, internalmass migration as part of geopolitical demographicpolicy Manyfactors increase ourdesire forchildren - Factors that increase people’s desires to havebabies are called pronatalist pressures. Raising a family may bethemost enjoyableand rewarding part of manypeople’s lives. Children can bea sourceof pleasure, pride, and comfort.They may betheonly sourceof supportforelderly parents in countries without asocial security system Otherfactors discouragereproduction - Higher education and personalfreedomforwomenoften result in decisions to limit childbearing. Thedesire to havechildren is offsetby adesire forothergoodsand activities that competewith childbearing and childrearing fortime and money - At theend of World WarII, therewas a “baby boom”as couples were reunited and new families started. This high birth rate persisted throughthetimes ofprosperity and optimismof the 1950s,butbeganto fall in the1960s. Could behaveabirth dearth? - There are concerns in all thesecountries aboutfalling military strength (lacof soldiers), economicpower(lack of workers),anddeclining social systems(notenoughworkers and taxpayers) if low birth rates persist or arenot balanced by immigration. In asense, theUnited States is fortunateto haveahigh influxof immigrates that provides youthand energy to its population - Economist Ben Wattenberg warns thatthis “birth dearth”might seriously erode thepowersof Western democracies in worldaffairs ADEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION CAN LEADTO STABLE POPULATIONSIZE - In 1945demographerFrankNotestein pointed outthat a typicalpattern of falling death rates and birth rates dueto improved living conditionsusually accompanies economicdevelopment. He called this pattern thedemographictransition fromhigh birth anddeath rates to lowerbirth and death rates Economicand social developmentinfluence birth and death rates There are reasonsto be optimisticaboutpopulation - Fertility rates havefallen dramatically nearly everywhere in theworld overthepast half century - Somecountries havehad aremarkable success in populationcontrol Manypeople remain pessimistic aboutpopulationgrowth - Their populationsare nowgrowing sorapidly that humandemandsexceed the sustainable yield of local forests,grasslands,croplands,orwaterresources. The resulting resource shortages, environmentaldeterioration, economic decline, and political instability may prevent these countries fromevery completing modernization Social justiceis an important consideration - Social justice(afairshareof socialbenefits foreveryone)is thereal key to successful demographictransitions.The worldhas enough resources foreveryone,but inequitable social and economicsystemscausemaldistribution of thoseresources. Hunger,poverty,violence, environmentaldegradation,and overpopulationare symptomsofalack ofsocial justicerather than alack ofresources Women’srights affect fertility - There has neverbeen a sustaineddrop in birth rates that wasnot first preceded bya sustained drop in infant andchild mortality. Oneofthe mostimportant distinctionsin our demographically divided world is thehigh infantmortality rates in theless-developed countries - Oftenthe best wayto improvechild survivalis to ensuretherights of mothers.Land reform, political rights, opportunitiesto earn an independent income, and improvedhealth status of womenoften arebetter indicators of totalfertility and family welfarethan raising GNP Family planning gives us choices - Family planning allows couples to determine the numberandspacing of their children. It doesn’t necessarily mean fewerchildren –people mayuse familyplanning to havethe maximum numberofchildren possible – butit does imply that theparents will controltheirreproductive lives andmake rational, consciousdecisions about howmany children they will haveand when thosechildren willbe born,rather thanleaving it to chance - In this context, birth controlusually means any methodused to reducebirths, including abstinence, delaying marriage, contraception, methodsthat preventsimplantation of embryos, and induced abortions Humanshavealways regulated theirfertility - Ancient techniques to controlpopulationsize include abstinence, folkmedicines, abortion,and infanticide Today thereare manyoptions - Modernmedicine gives usmany moreoptionsforcontrolling fertility than were available to our ancestors. Mostthan100new contraceptivemethods arenow being studied andsomeappear to havegreat promise.Nearly all arebiologically based (hormonally) ratherthan mechanical (condoms,IUD) Thechoices wemakedetermine ourfuture st - Mostdemographers believe that world populationwill stabilize sometimeduring the21 century. When wereach that equilibrium, thetotalnumberofhumansis likely to besomewhere around8-10billion, depending on thesuccess offamily planning programsand themultitudeof otherfactors affectinghuman populations - Successfulfamilyplanning programs oftenrequire significant societal changes. Amongthemost important are… 1. Improvedsocial, educational, and economicstatus forwomen(birthcontroland women’s rights are oftenlinked) 2. Improvedstatusforchildren (fewerchildren are bornif theyare not needed as cheap labor) 3. Acceptanceof calculated choice as avalid element in life in general and in fertility in particular (thebelief that wehaveno controloverourlives discourages asenseof responsibility) 4. Social security and political stability thatgive peoplethe means andthe confidenceto plan forthefuture 5. Theknowledge, availability, and useof effectiveand acceptable means ofbirth control - Theexample ofBrazil gives us hopethat with rising standardsof living, democracy, andsocial justice, populationgrowthwill spontaneouslyslowwithoutharsh governmentintervention Additionalresourceto studythe terms in this chapter: https://quizlet.com/152903360/conservation- and-environmental-science-chapter-seven-human-populations-flash-cards/
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