Anatomy October 4 and 6
Anatomy October 4 and 6 Biol 221
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 221 at Towson University taught by Williams-Hogarth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Anatomy October 6, 2016; DISCLAIMER PICTURES AND CONTENT ARE FROM LECTURE AND LECTURE PRESENTATION Repair of the Integument o Bleeding occurs o Mast cells trigger inflammatory response o A scab stabilizes and protects the area o Germinative cells migrate around the wound o Macrophages clean the area o Fibroblasts and endothelial cells move in producing granulation tissues o Steps 1. Inflammatory Phase Bleeding occurs at the site, and mast cells trigger an inflammatory response 2. Migratory Phase Scab forms and cells of the stratum Basale are migrating along the edges of the wound. Phagocytic cells are removing debris and more arrive with enhanced circulation Clotting partially isolates the region 3. Proliferation Phase About a week after scabbing The scab is undermined by epidermal cells migrating over the collagen fiber meshwork produced by the fibroblast Phagocytic activity around the site has almost ended. 4. Scarring Phase After Several weeks the scab is shed A shallow depression marks the site of injury Fibroblasts in the dermis continue to create scar tissue Will elevate the overlying epidermis Skin Cancer o Typically induced by UV rays of the sun o Typically, on the head and neck, fair-skinned and the elderly are the most commonly affected o Easiest to treat and has highest survival rates o Three types Basal Cell carcinoma Most common, least dangerous, forms In the stratum Basale, Squamous cell carcinoma Arise from keratinocytes from stratum spinosum Scalp, ears, lower lip, or back of had High recovery rate with early detection and surgical removal May become lethal Malignant melanoma Arises from melanocytes often in moles Can be treated surgically if caught early Metastasizes rapidly, typically fatal. Burns o UVA and UVB may initiate skin cancer o Sunscreens protect you from sunburn but may not protect cancer o Chemical in the sunscreen can damaged DNA and generate harmful free radicals o Burns are the leading cause of accidental death o First degree burn: Partial thickness burn, involves only the epidermis. Most sunburns are first degree o Second degree burn: Partial thickness burn involves the epidermis and part of the dermis. Typically forms a blister o Third degree burn: Full thickness burn; Epidermis and all of the dermis and potentially muscles and bones Require a graft Autograft: Tissue taken from another location on the same person’s body Isograph: Taking skin from identical twin Homograft: From an unrelated person Heterograft: From another species Amnion from afterbirth Artificial skin from silicone and collagen Effects of aging o Epidermal thinning o Degreased number of dendritic cells o Decreased vitamin 3 Production o Decreased melanocyte activity o Decreased glandular activity o Degreased blood supply o Decreased function of hair follicles o Reduction of elastic fibers o Decreased hormone levels o Slow repair rate Chapter 6 Skeletal system o Includes bones of the skeleton, cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues o 5 functions Support Storage of minerals (calcium) and Lipids (Yellow marrow) Blood cell production (Red marrow) Protection Leverage (force of motion) o Classification Shape, internal tissue organization, and bone marking’s Shapes Sutural bones Irregular bones Short bones Flat bones Long bones Sesamoid bones Bone markings Depressions or grooves Elevations of projections Tunnels Structure of a long bone Ex. Humerus Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis Structure of flat bone Ex. Parietal Resembles a sandwich of spongy bone o Bones Dene and supportive connective tissue Contains specialized cells Produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits (Why there is not much ground substance) Collagen fibers Osteocytes (mature bone cells) within lacunae. Osteocytes organize bone around blood vessels Canaliculi: Form pathways for blood vessels, exchange nutrients and wastes. Have gap junctions Periosteum: Covers the outer surface of bones Matrix proteins: 1/3 of bone matrix are protein fibers Bone tissue has four types of cells that only make up 2% of bone mass Osteocytes o Mature bone cells maintaining the matrix Osteoblasts o Immature bone cells that secrete osteoid o Osteoblasts surrounded by bone become osteocytes Osteoprogenitor cells o Stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts o Mesenchymal stem cells dived to produce osteoblasts o Located in the endosteum which is the inner cellular layer of the periosteum Osteoclasts o Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix Anatomy October 3 2016 DISCLAIMER NOTES AND IMAGES MAY OR MAY NOT BE DIRECTLY FROM THE POWERPOINT OR TEXTBOOK. The integument The largest system of the body 16% of body weight Made of two parts o Cutaneous membrane Outer epidermis: Superficial epithelium Inner dermis: Connective Tissues o Accessory structures Originate in the dermis and extend through to the skin surface Hair, nails, multicellular exocrine glands Hypodermis (Superficial fascia or subcutaneous layer) o Loose connective tissue o Below the dermis Cutaneous Membrane Epidermis Papillary layer Dermis Reticular layer Hypodermis Second picture showing accessory structures on slide 9, original picture of above on slide 8 Hair shaft Pore of sweat gland duct Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Sweat gland duct Hair follicle Lamellated (pacinian) corpuscle Nerve fibers Sweat gland Functions of the skin o Protection o Excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes o Maintenance of body temperature through insulation and evaporation o Production of melanin o Production of keratin o Synthesis of vitamin D Epidermis o Avascular stratified squamous epithelium o Cells of the epidermis Keratinocytes: These contain large amounts of keratin and are the most abundant cells in the epidermis o Thin skin: Covers most of the body and has 4 layers of keratinocytes. Image on slide 18 o Thick skin: Covers the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, with 5 layers of keratinocytes Stratum basale Attached to basement membrane by Hemidesmosomes Forms a strong bond between the epidermis and dermis Forms epidermal ridges which are the basis of fingerprints Dermal papillae (Tiny mounds) o Increase the area of the basement membrane o Strengthen attachment between epidermis and dermis Contain many basal cells (Germinative cells) Specialized cells in this portion: Merkel cells (Found in hairless skin, respond to touch), Melanocytes (Contain melanin) Stratum spinosum Known as the spiny layer which is produced through division of the stratum basale Eight to ten layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes Cells shrink until cytoskeletons stick out forming the spiny appearance Contain dendritic (Langerhans) cells Stratum granulosum Known as the grainy layer Stops dividing and produces keratin (Fibrous protein that makes hair and nails) and keratohyalin (Dense granules that cross-link keratin fibers) Produce protein fibers Then they dehydrate and die and create a tightly interlocked layer of keratin surrounded by keratohyalin Stratum lucidum Known as the clear layer Found only in thick skin Covers the stratum granulosum Stratum corneum Known as the horn layer Exposed surface of the skin 15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells Water resistant Shed and replaced every two weeks Keratinization o The formation of a layer of dead protective cells filled with keratin, Occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except the eyes Perspiration Insensible perspiration: Interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum Sensible perspiration: Water excreted by sweat glands Skin color Carotene: The orange-yellow pigment, found in orange vegetables, it accumulates in epidermal cells and the fatty tissues of the dermis and can be converted into vitamin A Melanin: Yellow-brown or black pigment, produced in the stratum Basale by melanocytes, stored in melanosomes, transferred to keratinocytes Blood flow o Blood vessels dilate and skin reddens, blood flow decreases skin gets pale o Cyanosis: Massive decrease in blood flow gives skin a blue color Diseases o Jaundice: Buildup of bile produced by the liver o Addison’s disease: a disease of pituitary gland, skin darkening o Vitiligo: Loss of melanocytes, loss of color Function of melanocytes o Protect from sun damage Epidermal growth factor (EGF) o Powerful peptide growth factor o Produced by glands o Used in laboratories to grow skin grafts o Functions Promotes division of Germinative cells, accelerates keratin production, stimulates epidermal repair, stimulates glandular secretion Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) is produced in the presence of UV radiation and is converted into calcitriol by the liver and kidneys and aids In the production of calcium and phosphorus. The dermis o Located between the epidermis and subcutaneous layer o Anchors epidermal accessory structures o Two parts Outer papillary layer Consists of areolar tissue, contains smaller capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons. Has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges. Dermatitiis: Inflammation of the papillary layer Deep reticular layer Consists of dense irregular connective tissue, contains larger blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers. Also contains collagen and elastic fibers, and connective tissue proper. Collagen fibers: Strong, resist stretching but bend easily, provide flexibility Elastic fibers: Permit stretching and then recoil to original length Skin turgor: Properties of flexibility and resilience o Cleavage lines: Collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, arranged in parallel bundles, resist force in a direction specific to them o Cleavage(tension) lines: A parallel cut remains shut, heals well, a cut across or at a right angle pulls open and scars o Blood supply of the dermis Cutaneous plexus: A network of arteries along the reticular layer Papillary plexus: Capillary network from small arteries in the papillary layer Venous plexus: Capillary return deep to the papillary plexus Contusion: Damaged blood vessels o Nerve fibers in skin control Blood flow, gland secretions, sensory receptors Tactile corpuscles: Light touch, located in dermal papillae Lamellated corpuscles: Deep pressure and vibration, located in the reticular layer Hypodermis (Subcutaneous layer) o Lies below the integument, stabilizes the skin, allows separate movement, made of elastic areolar and adipose tissues, connected to the reticular layer of the integument by connective tissue fibers, few capillaries and no vital organs. Accessory structures o Hair Protects and insulates, guards’ openings against particles and insects, sensitive to very light touch The follicle: Is located deep in the dermis, produces nonliving hairs, wrapped in a dense connective tissue sheath, base is surrounded by sensory nerves (root hair plexus) o Arrector pili Involuntary smooth muscle, causes hairs to stand up, production of goosebumps o Sebaceous glands Lubricate the hair and control bacteria o Hair root Lower part of the hair, attached to the integument o Hair shaft Upper part of the hair, not attached o Hair production Begins at the base of the follicle, the hair bulb produces the hair matrix o Structure of the hair shaft Medulla: The central core (Soft keratin) Cortex: The middle layer (Hard keratin) Cuticle: The surface layer (Hard keratin) o Structure/layers of the follicle Internal root sheath: The inner layer, contacts the cuticle in lower hair root External root sheath: Extends from the skin surface to the hair matrix Glassy membrane: A dense connective tissue sheath, contacts connective tissues of the dermis o Types of hairs Vellus hairs: Soft/fine hair that covers the body surface Terminal hairs: Heavy, pigmented. Found in the head, eyebrows, and eyelashes, and other parts of the body after puberty Sebaceous glands and sweat glands o Sebaceous glands: Holocrine glands, secrete sebum Simple branched alveolar glands are associated with hair follicles Sebaceous follicles: discharge directly onto the surface of the skin Sebum: Contains lipids, it lubricates and protects the epidermis and inhibits bacteria o Sweat glands Apocrine: Found in armpits, nipples, and groin. Secrete products into the hair follicles, produce cloudy/sticky secretions, break down and cause odors. They are surrounded by myoepithelial cells that squeeze apocrine glands secretions onto skin surface. These are a result of hormonal or nervous signals Merocrine (eccrine): watery secretions Widely distributed on the surface of the body, mostly on the palms and soles of the feet. Coiled, tubular glands. They discharge directly onto the skin surface. This is sensible perspiration. o Other glands Mammary glands: Produce milk Ceruminous glands: Produce earwax (cerumen) o Control of the glands ANS (autonomic nervous system) Controls subaceous and apocrine sweat glands over entire body Merocrine sweat glands Controlled independently Thermoregulation The main function of sensible perspiration Nails o Protect fingers and toes, made of dead cells packed with keratin. o Nail production occurs deep in the epidermal fold near the bone called the nail root o Nail body: The visible portion of the nail that covers the nail bed o Lunula: the pale crescent at the base of the nail o Sides of nails: Lay in the lateral nail grooves surrounded by lateral nail folds o Hyponychium: The skin beneath the distal free edge of the nail o Eponychium: The cuticle of the nail where it emerges
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