Ancient Cities Oct 4 and 6
Ancient Cities Oct 4 and 6 HIST 202
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Towson University taught by Gadotti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
DISCLAIMER NOTES MAY BE DIRECTLY FROM LECTURE PRESENTATION October 4, 2016 Aegean Cities The Aegean Sea separates Greece and turkey This area was occupied by two cultures the Minoan and the Mycenaean The Minoan o Settled in Crete o Their cultural history is mixed in with the history of Crete o Their history is influenced by geography and the chronology of their history is based on the Thera-Santorini volcanic eruption (ca. 1620-1450 BCE) o The island of Crete is isolated by on major trade routes to Greece, the Levant, and Egypt (also known as the Eastern Mediterranean trade route) o Broke down into 3 time periods Pre-Palatial (3650-1900 BCE) Emergence of complex society In the form of an elite class, warriors, priests. Proto-Palatial (1900- 1700 BCE) Onset of palaces Fortified buildings, arranged around a central court, controlled collection and redistribution of wealth and goods Linear A tablets: Found at Akrotiri but have not been deciphered 1800 BCE Palaces were destroyed but rebuilt without changes A second natural disaster occurs which begins the Neopalatial period Neopalatial period (1700 – 1300 BCE) The Knossos remained occupied but now by the Mycenaean Linear B tablet from the Mycenaean’s was discovered and deciphered Post palatial 1390 – 1100 BCE The palaces were destroyed by fire Many settlements were abandoned around 1100 BCE Cosmological center: Mediator between the God’s and people o It was shown the Knossos was a center through the imitation of the culture through architecture, artifacts, and style of dress. o Examples pillars, rooms, thrones, frescos, Ivory figurines, dress with open bodice Santorini/Thera (Santorini is the modern name and Thera is the ancient name) o 70m North of Crete’s active volcano o Akrotiri “The Pompeii of the east” Homes They were both stand alone or clustered The streets were not straight No dead bodies were found Mycenean chronology o 1700-1200 BCE o Lion gate o Grave circle A (1600 – 1500 BCE) Probably a royal cemetery o Grave circle B Funerary masks DISCLAIMER NOTES MAY BE DIRECTLY FROM IN CLASS PRESENTATION Ancient Cities October 6, 2016 Anatolian Cities Geography o Modern day Turkey o Connects Asia and Europe o Bordered by three seas To the north the Black Sea To the south the Mediterranean Sea To the west the Aegean Sea Internally to the north west the Sea of Maimara which is connected to the Black Sea by the Bosporus straight. o Two mountain chains The Pontic mountains to the north The Taurus mountains to the south o Lots of volcanos o Lots of fresh water in the form of rivers o Internal plateau and coastal planes Why Troy and Hattusa? Because since troy is coastal and Hattusa is on the plane it shows both sides of Anatolian urbanism. Troy (Ancient name Illum) NW Turkey (Ancient Anatolia) Continually occupied in antiquity Geography o Controlled the largest maritime trade routes with the easiest crossing point between Europe and Asia o Were often involved in military situations Troy had X layers of occupation o Troy I (3,000 BCE) Linked to a lagoon and was in a strategic location, this was the first period of occupation o Troy II The citadel was 96,000f The fortification walls were unusually large and strong showing the area was under threat Most important discovery was Priam’s Treasure Large vessels, jewelry, weapons, gold, silver, bronze, and axes made in Lapis Lazuli showing that they were involved in long distant trade and were wealthy o Troy VI 2 The citadel increased in size to 215, 000f Increase in population and size of walls Advance in Architecture Only one piece of writing discovered This area was contempary with the Hittites Damaged n 1275 BCE by an earthquake The walls were repaired o Troy VII People began moving into the city walls Destroyed by an attack in 1200 evidenced by burning and left over weapons Sections of the walls were repaired o Troy was seen as the origin of Rome by the Roman empire The Hittites (1650 -1200 BCE) Indo-European No written sources before 1650 Capital was Hattusha Early periods are poorly documented Known because of outside sources Used several languages o Sumerian, Akkadian, Hittite, Hattie, Hurrian Luwain, palaic Separated into three main periods o Old Kingdom (1650 -1500 BCE) Very little is known Established by Hattusili I o Middle Kingdom (1500 – 1430 BCE) Little known Kings follow one after another often through death o New Kingdom (1430 -1178 BCE) Strong military leaders Engaged in a long war with Egypt Hattusha o The capital city o Strategic position easily defendable, 180 acres o Four main points Citadel Seat of the government Site of the palace Clay tablets were found here (25,000) Great Temple Storm/Weather god and sun goddess (Rare that the sun is a female) In the inner city to the north Several windows, central courtyard with adjacent rooms, economic entity Most massive building in the inner city Originated in the New Kingdom To the south of it there was store houses and artisan workshops Yazilikaya 2m from the city Used for new year festival Not in the Hittite capital Unroofed Most popular in the last phase Walls and Gates Sphinx gate, lion gate, and kings gate faced different directions and held a ceremonial purpose King was the military leader and priest of all the Hittite gods and had to travel annually marking his procession with buildings and monuments.