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Major Minerals and Trace Minerals

by: Alise Robison

Major Minerals and Trace Minerals 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 > Major Minerals and Trace Minerals
Alise Robison

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These notes cover everything about minerals
Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon
Class Notes
minerals, Major, Trace, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, fluoride, chromium, iodine, sodium, chloride, potassium, Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sulfate
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Minerals Major Minerals Calcium  Involved with formation of bones and teeth  Dairy products are a good dietary source of calcium—ideally a food that contains calcium that the body can absorb well  Calcitriol: binds to calcium to increase absorption when blood levels are low  Food sources: dairy, sardines, fortified foods o 8 oz milk o 1 cup yogurt o 1.5 oz cheddar cheese o 1.5 cups cooked kale o 2 ¼ cups cooked broccoli o 8 cups cooked spinach  300 mg (30% of daily value)  1,000g in body—most out of all minerals  Binders of calcium (chelators) o In vegetables, oxalates bind to calcium o Grains, legumes contain phytates o Consuming coffee/tea can slightly block calcium binding  Can get calcium from all 5 food groups  Common supplement forms (consider elemental amount) o Calcium carbonate (40%)  Requires good stomach acid  Take with acidic food  Least expensive o Calcium citrate (21%)  Low stomach acid  With/without food  May protect kidney stones  More expensive  Higher doses required compared to calcium carbonate o Calcium lactate (13%)  Good absorption o Calcium gluconate (9%)  Good absorption  Expensive  Best absorbed in doses of <500 mg at a time o Children: RDA 1300mg / UL 3000mg o 19-50: RDA 1000mg / UL 2500mg o >50: RDA 1200 mg / UL 2000mg  Body flushes out excess calcium  Calcium Functions o Bone mineralization: 99% found in teeth and bones  Children & adolescence: increase in bone density  Early adulthood (age 25-30): peek bone mass  >50yrs: bone mineral density decline o Blood clotting, Blood Vessel Dilation and Contraction o Nerve and Muscle Conduction  Calcium Deficiency o At risk individuals: vegetarians, post-menopausal women o Bone complication: rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis o Muscle tetany (spasms)  Calcium Toxicity o Calcification of soft tissues o Nausea Phosphorous  Food Sources: dairy, legumes, seeds, chocolate, colas, animal products, nuts, whole grains, dark colored foods  Phosphorous Functions: o Bone Mineralization: forms complexes with calcium o Energy production and storage: AMP, ADP, ATP, creatine phosphate o Nucleotide/nucleoside phosphates: DNA/RNA  Deficiency o Hypophosphatemia—refeeding syndrome o Electrolyte imbalance o Cardiac arrhythmias—can lead to cardiac arrest o Difficulty breathing—can lead to pulmonary failure  Toxicity o Hyperphosphatemia—end stage renal disease o Muscle cramps and tetany o Severe itchy skin o Soft tissue calcification Magnesium  Competes for same source as calcium and phosphorous because they are all cations  Food Sources: coffee, tea, chocolate, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables, whole grains o Peanut butter sandwich  Key Function: o Smooth muscle relaxant—relaxes bronchioles, arterioles, and uterine muscle  To regulate blood pressure, heart contractility, bowel function, and pain o Regulates calcium—helps excret, build strong bones and teeth o Relaxes skeletal muscle—helps relieve muscle cramping and pain o Energy production o Regulates heart contractility—blocks calcium from heart muscle o Cleans the bowel  Deficiency o Muscle weakness (inability to regulate calcium—how muscle contracts), fatigue, headaches  Toxicity o Nausea, diarrhea, stomach crams  Therapeautic Uses o Targets relaxation of smooth muscle o Hypertension (high blood pressure) o Migraine headaches o Natural laxative (milk of magnesia) Sodium  NOT the same thing as salt (salt is sodium chloride)  Necessary for life—plays essential roles  Main extracellular cation (outside of the cells) o Intracellular cation: potassium  One teaspoon of salt=2300mg sodium o UL for American adults o Average american consumes up to 6000mg/day  Nutrient content claims o “Salt free”—5mg or less of sodium o “No added salt”—salt wasn't added, but food products naturally contain some sodium  Food Sources o Primarily from added salt (NaCl) o Found in plant and animal cells o Breads and rolls, cold cuts & cured meats, pizza, poultry, soup, sandwiches  Functions o Fluid and electrolyte balance: primary extracellular cation o Nutrient transport into cells (Na+/K+ pump) o Muscle contraction o Nerve transmission and impulse conduction  Sodium Intake o Adequate Intake (AI): 1500mg/day o Tolerable Upper Level (UL): 2300mg/day  Increased risk for high blood pressure o Normal: under 120 systolic, under 80 diastolic o Moderate: 120-139 systolic, 80-89 diastolic o High: 140+ systolic, 90+ diastolic October 5, 2016 Potassium  Food sources: fruits and vegetables: bananas, potatoes, greens, legumes, dairy, seafood o Avocado, banana, potatoes, spinach, green beans, citrus juices, fish  RDA: 4700mg which is twice the UL of 2300mg sodium o To reduce blood pressure need more potassium than sodium  Toxicity and deficiency lead to same effects: fatigue, weakness, paralysis, cardiac/respiratory arrest, cardiac arrhythmias  Functions o Fluid and electrolyte balance: primarily intracellular cation o Nutrient transport into cells (i.e., Na+/K+ Pump) o Muscle contraction—smooth, skeletal, cardiac o Nerve transmission and impulse conduction  Intake o AI: 4700mg/day o May help reduce HTN (hypertension)—DASH diet  Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension  Decrease sodium to 1500mg/day  Increase potassium, calcium, magnesium rich foods  Emphasis on grains, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, legumes, nuts/seeds, healthy plant-based oils  Reduced intake of animal protein and fat, and added sugar  Deficiency: Hypokalemia o Muscle weakness, fatigue, irregular heartbeat, paralysis  Toxicity: Hyperkalemia o Muscle weakness, fatigue, irregular heartbeat, paralysis Trace Minerals Iron  Ferric (non-heme) iron cannot be easily absorbed by the body o Plant-based sources  Non-heme + heme/Vitamin C increases bioavailability  Sources: heme iron (animals) vs. non-heme iron (plants) o Fish, beef, liver are heme iron and high in absorption o Dairy is NOT a good source of iron o Red/dark meat is a good source  Bioavailability o Heme iron (Ferrous form) more bioavailable than non-heme iron (Ferric form) o MFP in meat, fish, poultry & vitamin C enhance non-heme absorption o Inhibitors of iron absorption: phytates, oxalates, vegetable proteins (soy), calcium, tannic acid (tea & red wine)  Heme iron has good bioavailability  To absorb iron better and increase bioavailability o Add Vitamin C o Add non-heme iron o Add grains—binds to iron  MFP factor—help make non-heme iron more bioavailable in the body o Meat, fish, poultry factor  Location: hemoglobin (RBC) and myoglobin (muscle)  Functions: o Oxygen transport in blood and muscles o Energy metabolism—coenzyme  Macronutrients (especially carbs and lipids) o Immune function—for lymphocyte and macrophage production  White blood cells  Macrophage—first line of defense: amoeba that surrounds what is foreign and consumes it  Lymphocyte—second line of defense  Brain function—for neurotransmitter synthesis  RDA: 8mg men; 18mg women; 27mg pregnancy  Deficiency: microcytic anemia o At risk: children, pregnant women, vegetarians o Causes: inadequate intake or absorption, blood losses o Symptoms: fatigue, loss of appetite, paleness o Pica: craving for non-food substances (dirt, powdered laundry detergent, chalk)  Toxicity: liver damage and hemochromatosis o More common in men Iodine  Sources: fortified salt, dairy, food grown in iodine-rich soil o Yogurt, milk, eggs, seaweed  Function: component of thyroid hormones o Important for growth o Thyroxine and triiodothyronine  Deficiency o Goiter—inflammed thyroid gland o Goitrogens: foods that inhibit iodine use o Cretinism: mental/physical retardation in infants Zinc  Food Sources: red meat, shellfish, green leafy vegetables, mushrooms, fortified grains  Functions o Co-enzyme for many metabolic functions o DNA & RNA synthesis—controls gene transcription o Tissue and cell growth (wound healing)  Zinc oxide—acne/scar medicine o Cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity  Reduces symptoms and can decrease length of cold, but cannot get rid of virus o Association with taste  Deficiency o Hair loss and changes in taste acuity o Sexual impotence, especially in males o Delayed growth and maturation in children  Toxicity o UL: 40mg from dietary supplements o Zinc toxicity can lead to copper and iron deficiency Tonight I am having a three -bean beef chili with various kinds of peppers and tomato sauce. What are the minerals and vitamins that I will be absorbing?  Iron  Sodium  Calcium  Breaking down phytates  Vitamin C  Vitamin A Now that I have cooked down the phytate bonds, what mineral(s) and vitamin (s) will this allow me to absorb?  Heme and non-heme iron along with vitamin C will make iron more bioavailable.  Phosphorous  B6 Flouride  Source: found in water and tea  Function: mineralization of teeth and bones o Main structure on the outside of the tooth  Deficiency: dental carries (cavities)  Toxicity: fluorosis—teeth and skeleton o Teeth that look like they have holes o Over-structuring of the outside of the teeth o Can also happen in bones


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