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by: Alise Robison

Water 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001

Alise Robison

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Complete notes on water, including learning catalytics
Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon
Class Notes
Water, dehydration, fluid, intracellular, intercellular, extracellular, osmolality, oncotic, pressure, sweat, urine
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Water Learning Catalytics: Organs that play a role in blood volume  NOT the heart—ONLY controls blood pressure  Too much sodium allows the body to recognize low blood volume  Kidney o Can increase blood pressure o Regulates blood volume o Reacts to certain concentrations in the blood o ONLY organ that can react to blood volume o Can tell heart to increase blood pressure to push the blood through the body because there is a lack of fluid (water)  Pituitary gland  Adrenal gland (only for fight or flight, but will kick in when needed)  Hypothalamus -The first sign of dehydration is thirst. -Someone can drink too much water causing water intoxication, and in some cases can lead to death. You can fill up your lungs and drown yourself. -Sports drinks should only be consumed after one hour of intense activity, 80-95% of max heart rate. Intention of sports drinks is to replace nutrients and electrolytes, but if you don't have a heart rate over 80% it is useless. Most bottles are two servings, when only one is needed. They have a large amount of carbs, so you are basically consuming calories Body Water  Largest single and most vital component of body o Birth: 75%-85% total body weight o Lean adult: 60-70% o Obese adult: 45-55%  Will always go from high concentration to low  Proportion decreases with age and adiposity  Metabolically active cells (muscle and organs) have highest concentration  Functions o Digestion, absorption, metabolism, excretion o Structure of molecules and cells o Circulatory system: maintain blood volume o Transport medium for nutrients and substances o Lubricant and cushioning  Blisters—water sack filled with high friction o Body temperature maintenance  Sweating to cool the body down  Distribution o Intracellular fluid: water and dissolved solutes INSIDE the cell o Extracellular fluid: water and substances OUTSIDE cells in plasma, lymph, spinal fluid; includes intercellular water o Intercellular (Interstitial) water: water BETWEEN and around cells  Oncotic Pressure: at the capillary membrane by proteins o Helps retain water within blood vessels o Low plasma proteinwater leak into interstitial space  Osmolality: number of solute particles in a volume of solution o <285mOsm/L = water excess (think of being in a pool too long: skin cells shrivel because water has come out of the cell and everything is shrunken down) o >200mOsm/L = water deficit  Water Balance o Water intake (food and fluid) = water output (excretion) o Excreted through skin—sweating  Excrete through respiration  Urine and feces o Water intoxication: intake > output o Homeostasis disturbed when sodium concentration is increased in extracellular fluid  Osmoreceptors stimulated increased ADHD and thirstdecreased urinary water loss and increased water gainadditional water dilutes ECF, volume increasedhomeostasis restored o Loss of 10% body water can cause impairment o Loss of 20% body water can cause death o Healthy adults can live 5-10 days without water o Children can live 5 days without water  Signs of Dehydration o 1-2% body weight loss: thirst, fatigue, weakeness, vague discomfort, loss of appetite o 3-4%: impaired physical performance, dry mouth, reduction in urine, flushed skin, impatience, apathy o 5-6%: difficulty concentrating, headache, irritability, sleepiness, impaired temperature regulation, increased respiratory rate o 7-10%: dizziness, spastic muscles, loss of balance, delirium, exhaustion, collapse  Recommended intake of water o We need one milliliter of water for every calorie we eat o Minimum: 1500mL = 6 cups of water per day  Hydration Status o Sweat rate: fluid loss per hour of exercise = sum of body weight loss + fluid intake o Dehydration: thirst should NOT be your guide. Once you are thirsty, you are already dehydrated o The darker your urine, the more dehydrated you are  Maintaining Hydration o For events < 1 hour  1-2 hours before exercise—2 cups water  During exercise—drink early and at regular intervals o For intense events > 1 hour  Sports beverage during exercise (100 mg Na, 30 mg K/cup, 4-8% CHO) o Drinks containing CHO add no benefit if the exercise is less than an hour…consider the extra kcals


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