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by: Hayoung Lee

lifespan PSY 3300

Hayoung Lee
Texas State
GPA 3.9

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chapter 6?7?
Lifespan development
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3300 at Texas State University taught by Meeks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Lifespan development in Psychology at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Lifespan development 09.28.16 CH 5:  Myelination o Large reason for rapid brain growth o Process that insulates the nerves and speeds up neural communication o This is why young children can think and react quicker than toddlers  Corpus collosum: o Nerve fibers that connect the two halves of the brain o Also myelinate, become insulated o Helps children coordinate functions o To use both sides of their brain o Two sides of the body and brain are not identical  Left side of brain: o Controls the right side of the body o Dedicated to logic, analysis, language, and notices details  Right side of brain: o Controls left side of body o Controls emotional impulses o Controls creative impulses o * left side sees details, right side sees the big picture  Prefrontal cortex: o Helps with self control and self regulation o Last part of the brain to reach maturity o Plans, selects, and coordinates thoughts o Does not complete growing until late adolescence or early adulthood  If prefrontal cortex is not fully developed: o Impulsiveness o Perseverance – hold on to a thought long after it is appropriate  Brain development o Not smooth and linear o Brain does not develop at the same age for every child  Underdeveloped brain may cause o Poor emotional control o Poor classroom learning o Poor peer relationships o All seen in school years  Lateralization is: o Two sides of the brain in the body specializing in certain tasks o Two sides of the brain look identical but are not o House different areas of specialty Lifespan development  Specializations influenced by: o Genetic makeup o Prenatal hormones o Early experiences  Emotions in the brain o Limbic system is: critical to emotions o Parts: amygdala:  Almond shaped  Deep within the brain structure  Registers basic emotions such as fear and aggression o Hippocampus:  Next to the amygdala  Central station for processing memories o Both amygdala and hippocampus:  Work together to learn  If both are not mature enough, learning is difficult  May be too fearless, or too fearful o Hypothalamus:  Receives signal from amygdala and hippocampus, and responds by producing the hormones that are needed  If the signals are inaccurate, then the hormones released are inaccurate o Preschool thinking:  More subjective than objective o Piaget’s stage:  Preoperational stage of cognitive thinking o 4 aspects of preoperational  1. Centration: tendency of preschoolers to focus or center their attention on one aspect of a problem  aspect of egocentrism, inability to take another person’s perspective  2. Appearances: how something looks to them is how they are going to focus on  3. Static reasoning: see the world as either/or / right or wrong, not as one of a lot of possibilities  see the world as unchanging  4. Irreversibility: preschoolers do not understand reversing a process  don’t understand that reversal it will restore conditions to their original condition o Conservation: principle that a substance is unaffected by changes in appearance  Piaget – preschoolers – conservation: Lifespan development  Because they don’t understand: use centration, focus on appearances, because they look at the static result of change (as unchanging), fail to understand reversibility o Animism:  Belief that natural objects are alive  Give names to inanimate objects  Believe clouds, trees, pets, and understand them o Theory-theory: idea that children create a theory to explain everything they see and hear  Gopnik invented this  This is how children bring order to the world o Vygotsky:  Believes that children’s cognitive growth can be and should be guided by adults  Adults should:  Present challenges for learning  Offer assistance with difficult tasks  Provide instructions: how to  Provide motivation and encouragement  Vygotsky sees children as:  Apprentices in thinking  Believes guided participation is important  Social experiences and explorations of environment help them grow cognitively  Zone of proximal development  The range of skills a person can perform with assistance but not independently  “what can I do with help”  Scaffold:  Sensitively structuring a child’s participation of learning encounters  Explaining, pointing, listening to what child said and asked  Vygotsky and language:  By private speech, when children internally review what they know, and regulate their own actions  Use social mediation, when older members of society teach language through correction  Theory of mind:  Attempt to answer questions about mental processes such as: o Thoughts Lifespan development o Emotions o Motive and intentions o Trying to understand  Why? o Psychology of children trying to understand how the world works  By age 4 years: o Children understand that mental ideas may not reflect reality o Individuals can believe different things o People can be deliberately deceived or fooled  Theory of mind is strengthened by: o Brain maturation o Language ability o One or more siblings o Culture  Language: o By age 2, child knows about 500 words o By age 6, they know more than 10,000 words  Fast mapping: o Process where words are placed in a category after only one hearing o More categories a child has the faster their fast mapping is  Overregularization:  Tendency for preschoolers to overuse grammar rules  Understand this is a rule and are trying to apply it  Sign of verbal sophistication  “buddy hitted me!”  Early childhood education:  Maria Montessori: o Opened the first structured preschools for poor children in Rome o Allows children to learn at their own pace o More structured programs stress academics  Reggio Emilia: o Encouraging mastery of skills that are not seen until age 7  Recent history: o 70 years ago, all children stayed home until 1 st grade o More mothers are working, want more children in school o Children are ready to learn Lifespan development  Head start: o Started by LBJ in 1965 o Gives disadvantaged children the same tools and skills as other children when they start school  Early Childhood education: o Does make a difference for long term benefits o Score higher on math and reading o As adults, are more likely to attend college o Less likely to go to jail  High Quality pre school programs: o Safe environment o Low teacher to children ratio (less children to one teacher) o Well trained staff o Curriculum that emphasizes cognitive growth, not behavioral control o Space which allows for and encourages creative and constructive play 10.03.16  Accidents in early childhood o #1 cause of death in childhood except in times of famine o boys have more injuries and accidental deaths than girls o income is related to accident rates; poor countries having more children die from accidents  Safety laws: laws that penalize people for not following the rules for young children o Buckling seatbelt, not keeping them in hot car,  Injury control or harm reduction: safety education that tries to teach both adults and children at the same time  Safety laws are more effective than education  Child Maltreatment: o All intentional harm to and avoidable endangerment of someone under 18 years of age  2 categories: o Child abuse: all actions which are deliberately harmful to a child’s well being o Child neglect:  failure to act appropriately to meet a child’s basic needs  Can be medical or educational or physical o Failure to thrive:  Sign of child neglect  Main symptom is that child gains little or no weight Lifespan development  Signs of PTSD: o Hyper vigilance: older child, when they seem too nervous to concentrate on anything o Excessive physical activity, hyperactive  Substantiated: in the US, since 1993, about 1 million cases of substantiated cases of child maltreatment  Reported: about 3 million o Increase because: because there are new laws that require a professional to report possible maltreatment  Difficulty learning: o Because of abnormal brain patterns that have developed  Shaken baby syndrome: o Most serious kind of abuse o Can cause the child’s neck to break o Can damage blood vessels and neural connections in the brain  Depressed mothers: o Children whose mothers are clinically depressed develop the right side of the prefrontal cortex than the left o As a result, negative emotions dominate, and depression is more likely  Maltreated children o Kids who are maltreated see others as hostile and exploited o Therefore, they are less friendly, more aggressive, and more isolated than others  As adults o More likely to be self-destructive, and engage in other destructive behavior  Primary prevention: o Public policy measures designed to prevent maltreatment  Secondary prevention: o Reduces the immediate danger o Tries to recognize and treat symptoms of maltreatment  Tertiary prevention: o After harm has occurred o Removing a child from the abusive situation o Jail the perpetrator, education, family therapy,  Options for maltreated children: o Foster care: may be long term, but temporary solution for the child to live with a family other than their own o Kinship care: child lives with aunt, uncle, preferred by courts o Adoption: permanent way to get child into new family o Terminating parental rights: biological parents give up all of their legal rights Lifespan development CHAPTER 6  Overview of emotional development o Self conscious is being formed o Erikson sees this as initiative vs. guilt stage o Child eagerly takes on new tasks, and feels guilty if fails or criticized o Develops positive sense of abilities o Preschoolers overestimate their abilities  Emotional regulation: o Begins with controlling impulses o Externalizing or internalizing  Externalizing: children lash out at people or things that are said  Considered under control (not have enough control)  Internalizing: internalize problems, and might be inhibited, fearful, and withdrawn  Genetics does influence emotional regulation o Fearful children: Have more activity in right prefrontal cortex of their brains o Less fearful children: Have more activity in their left side of the prefrontal cortex  Extreme stress can: o Kill neurons o it can make some children physiologically unable to regulate their emotions o can also affect the release of the stress hormone cortisol o abused children release less cortisol  Care experience matters: o Empathy: able to understand one’s emotions  Can lead to prosocial behavior: kind/helpful to others without an obvious benefit to oneself o Antipathy: dislike or hatred for another person  Can lead to antisocial behavior, deliberately hurting or destroying another person  Gender differences: o Boys: tend to be aggressive  In public: assertive, assertive  private: remorseful, regretful o Girls: tend to be anxious  In public: conform, calm  Private: assertive, aggressive o Thimble analogy: young children have the emotional capacity of a thimble, fills up quickly Lifespan development  Types of aggression o 1. Instrumental: used to obtain or retain a desired toy o 2. Reactive: using angry retaliation against an angry child o 3. Relational: cause psychic, not physical pain o 4. Bullying: used in an unprovoked attack on a peer  Peers provide: o Provide playmates o Opportunities to practice social skills o Rough and tumble play  Physical play in which aggression is faked  More common among boys than girls  More universal social activity  Usually happens among children who have lots of social experience o Sociodramatic play:  When children create their own story and act it out  Becomes more frequent and complex during this stage of development   Allows children to:  A. Rehearse social roles  B. Test their abilities to convince others of their ideas  Allows children to regulate emotions  Self concept and context that is non-threatening  Girls are more likely to engage in sociodramatic play than boys  Types of play:  Solitary: when child plays alone  On-looker: child watches others play  Parallel play: play alongside another child  Associative: children interact and share, but not reciprocal  Cooperative: play together, and is reciprocal o Parenting effects on psychosocial development:  Diane Baumrind’s 4 aspects of parenting  1. Warmth: nurturing behaviors towards the children  2. Discipline: what kind and how was it used (corporal/consistent)  3. Communication: with children and parents, what kind, amount  4. Maturity expectations: expectations for age appropriate conduct o 5 styles of parenting: Lifespan development  1. Authoritarian parenting: the dictator  Parent’s word is law, and no questions allowed  Parent – child communication is low, not a lot of conversation/explanation  Maturity demands are high  Children are likely to be obedient but unhappy  2. Permissive parenting  Parents make few maturity demands on the children  Parents are nurturing, accepting, and communicate well with their children  Discipline is lax, not enough structure  Children often lack self control  3. Authoritative parenting: democratic (!!!!)  high maturity demands of children but communicate more than the dictator parent  more nurturing and democratic  explain the rules, can be flexible and enforcing them  these children are successful, articulate, intelligent, happy with themselves, and generous with others  4. Neglectful parenting:  parents don’t seem to care at all about their children, uninvolved  5. Indulgent parenting:  gives into the child’s every desire 10.05.16  Parenting is also influenced by: o Child’s temperament o Culture o Community o Parenting style needs to fit with the child’s temperament o Parents need to parent the child they have  Discipline o Important part of parenting style o Most effective discipline is less punitive (punishing) and more proactive and preventive  Time out o Commonly used form of discipline o Child is removed from the activity for a brief period of time o 1-minute per year of age  TV viewing in North America o 2-4 year olds watch more than 3 hours of TV a day o 5-6 year olds watch about 2 hours a day Lifespan development  Criticisms of TV and Video Games o Reinforces racist, sexist, ageist views o Shows violent solutions for all problems o No empathy is shown or developed o Show quick, reactive emotions instead of thoughtful regulation  Longitudinal study found: o Teenagers who watch educational TV as young children read more  Especially boys o Teenagers who watched violent TV as young children had lower grades  Especially girls  TV in child’s bedroom o What is the goal and the purpose? o Is there value in sharing one TV as a family? o What can be learned/gained from having a TV in the bedroom (or not)? o How are you going to monitor what they watch? o How are you going to discuss what they see?  Discipline – remember children’s thinking o Theory of mind is big, trying to make sense out of the world o They have an emerging self concept o Fast mapping is happening, therefore explanations and discussions do help them o They are not logical  Physical punishment o Increase obedience temporarily o May later increase aggression o Spanking does not lead to violent adults, there are other factors involved  Psychological control o Parent threatens to withdraw love or support o Never a healthy response for the child  Biological sex differences refer to: o How boys and girls are different biologically like body parts  Gender differences o Differences in their roles and behaviors o Sex differences become more apparent as they move into adulthood o Sex is what is between your legs, gender is what is between your ears  Gender: o Learned very early in life o Most 2 year olds know if they are a boy or a girl o They can identify strangers as boys or girls Lifespan development o By age 4, children criticize peers who choose gender inappropriate toys o By age 8, children realize sex is biological, it is not chosen by clothing, opinion, or words  Freudian Theory:  Phallic Stage: 3-6 years o Oedipus complex: desire of boys to replace their fathers and be the main male in the life of their mother o Electra complex: when girls have penis envy, girls go through Oedipus complex as well sometimes  Behaviorists believe: o Believe that gender roles are learned, not in born o Behaviors are either reinforced or punished o Children learn gender by observing others  Cognition theory believes: o Focus on children’s understanding of male, female differences o Children use their mental categories for male/female behavior to help them understand what they see  Sociocultural Theory believes: o Each culture teaches certain values and attitudes regarding gender behavior o These values and attitudes vary by region, SES (socioeconomic status), and historical period o Androgyny can only be taught if the culture accepts this idea  Epigenetic Theory believes: o Gender behavior is a result of genes and early experience CHAPTER 7: Middle Childhood – Body and Mind  1. A Healthy Time (age 7-11) o Growth is smooth, uneventful, and slower o Weight: average weight gain is 5-7lbs per year o Height: 2 inches per year o Average 10-year old: 70lbs, 4.5 feet tall  Tend to become: o Slimmer due to  1. Limbs are lengthening  2. Body proportions change  3. Muscles become stronger  4. Lung capacity increases Lifespan development  Variations in growth due to o Genetic makeup, Gender, Nutrition  Obesity: o 1. Overweight: 20% above the ideal weight for their age and height o 2. Obese: 30% above the ideal weight for their age and height  Obese in North America? o 1/3 children are obese in NA o Obesity increases: blood pressure o Obesity decreases: physical exercise o If obese children do not lose weight, then in adolescence will have more problems  Physical problems  Psychological problems  Can lead to depression  Too much stress about their weight an lead to: o Eating disorders:  Anorexia: refuse to take in enough food  Bulimia: binge eat, then try to purge it out of their system o Genes affect weight by influencing:  Body type  Metabolic weight  Activity level  Taste preferences  Weight also affected by: o Environmental factors such as lack of exercise  Help children lose weight by: o Increasing physical activity o Family based program is the best  Facts about childhood obesity o Childhood obesity has increased 4x in the last 30 years o Heaviest children have become heavier o All ethnic groups and SES are affected o 30-40% of daily calories go toward growth  Health should be the focus, not weight loss  Asthma: o Health concern of this age o Chronic inflammation of the airways o Increasing in developed countries o 10% of US children have at least 1 asthma attack  Environmental factors are seen as key  Possible causes: o Genes o Infections Lifespan development o Carpeted floors o Ventilation o Exposure to allergens: dust, pet hair, etc  Triggers but not causes: o Urbanizations  Treatments: o Injections o Inhalers o Pills  Prevention o Proper ventilation o Decrease in pollution o Safe outdoor play spaces  Brain development o Brain reaches adult size at about age 7 o Brain matures, child has more control of  Body movements  Emotions o Prefrontal cortex maturity helps  Help with thinking and analyzing  Improvement in selective attention o Autotimazation: process in which thoughts and actions are repeated until they become automatic o Less effort is required due to autotimazation o First step in the sequences causes a chain reaction o Ex. Reading  Knowing multiplication tables  Writing name  Speaking a second language  Reaction time improves as brain matures  Play is good for: brain maturation  Brain development: 7-11 years o Piaget’s concrete operations  Classification: understanding that objects can be classified into groups  Transitive inference: ability to know the answer from given information  Seriation: idea that things can be arranged in a series o Piaget: believes the child learns through experience o Vygotsky: believes child learns through instruction through others  3. Information processing theory o Selective attention: focus on a specific stimulus while ignoring others o Automatization: behaviors become automatic through repetition Lifespan development o Reaction time: quicker due to myelination  Sensory memory: when we take in incoming information  Working memory: aka short term memory: current, conscious information  Long term memory: no end to how much memory, limitless  Metacognition: o Thinking about thinking o When you determine how best to accomplish a task o Make adjustments as needed  Meta memory: o Understanding how memory works so we can use it well


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