The structure and function of DNA
The structure and function of DNA Biology 003
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Faith M Elissague on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 003 at Los Angeles Valley College taught by Yousef Harfouche in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology in Biology at Los Angeles Valley College.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 10: Structure and Replication DNA and RNA are made out of nucleotides. Nucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next. This results in what we call the sugar-phosphate backbone. Nucleotide is made up of a phosphate, a five carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base. The bases can be divided into two types: 1) Thymine and Adenine 2) Cytosine and guanine Instead of thymine, RNA has a similar base called u racil(U). In order to carry out basic growth and development we have to create new cells. This happens in a process called replication. It happens in almost every cell of your body. The DNA is pulled apart and matched with another strand. Then the nucleotides are lined up one at a time according to base pairing rules( T to A and C to G) The enzymes that make the covalent bond between the nucleotides of the new DNA strand are called D NA polymerase. Transcription: a transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule Translation: the transfer of information from RNA into a polypeptide (amino acids) DNA ----> RNA -------> Proteins Analogy of the process: Imagine you want the recipe for G Ma’s cookies G Ma’s House: nucleus Original recipe: DNA Copy of the recipe: RNA Ingredients to make the recipe: Amino Acids Pencil to copy the “code”: DNA polymerases Leaving G Ma’s house to make cookies: going into the cytoplasm The flow of information is based on a three letter code called codons which orders what nucleotide goes where and with. The start transcribing signal is a nucleotide sequence called a promoter. It tells the nucleotides where to go. Transcription follows three different steps: 1. Initiation (promoter signal) 2. Elongation: RNA grows longer 3. Termination: signals the end of a gene Genotype: genetic code (genes) Phenotype: the physical expression of genes (traits) Genotype determines the phenotype