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abnormal in class notes

by: Hayoung Lee

abnormal in class notes Psy 3315

Marketplace > Texas State University > Psychology > Psy 3315 > abnormal in class notes
Hayoung Lee
Texas State
GPA 3.9

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ch 7??
Abnormal Psychology
\ Etherton
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 3315 at Texas State University taught by \ Etherton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Abnormal psych Unit 2 I guess 10.04.16 CH 7: MOOD DISORDERS Depressive disorders:  Video: Barbara, behavioral observation  Self report: o Changes in functioning o Onset and course  Onset: when she first started feeling this way, high school  Course: recurring episodes o Severity of symptoms o Degree of functional impairment  Psychomotor changes: retardation; agitation  Blunted affect: not showing very much emotion  Self hatred: “feelings of worthlessness”  Isolation: alone for long periods of time  Social skills/repair relationship: conflict with kids  Seasonal affect: more neurobiological, depressive by season due to shorter days and longer night s  Causality: o Social difficulties o Life events (trigger) o Neurobiology (“chemical imbalance,” heritability) o Cognition (way people think, interpret events, view selves and others) o Reduced reinforcers (not enough pleasant events in life)  Major depressive disorder o Major depressive episode o 5 or more of the following, at least one of which must be symptom 1 or 2  1. Depressed mood (sad, blue, down)  2. Anhedonia (reduced interest/pleasure)  3. Appetite disturbance  4. Sleep disturbance  5. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt  6. Loss of energy/fatigue  7. Difficulty concentrating or indecision  8. Psychomotor agitation or retardation  9. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide o 2-week duration, most of the day for most days  Not better explained by medical condition, substance use Abnormal psych Unit 2 I guess  Clinically significant distress or impairment; distinct and more severe than normative response to loss  Persistent depressive disorder o 2-year minimum duration o Depressed mood and at least 2 additional symptoms of depression o Symptoms persist at least half of the time 2+ years o Displaces “Dysthymia” from DSM-IV, incorporates a more chronic of MDD  Prevalence o MDD: 12-16% lifetime prevalence in the US o Women: Men  2:1 o Persistent DD prevalence not yet known (new diagnosis)  Dysthymic disorder at 2.5% lifetime prevalence o Cohort effect: rates of depression higher in each successive generation  Comorbidities o 60% with MDD meet anxiety disorder criteria o Also co-morbid with substance use disorders, personality disorders o Shared underlying mechanism? o Increased risk of cardiovascular disease o Factors:  Behavior (isolating, avoiding, relation to mood, relation to biology from opposite effect, low activity, affects relationships)  Cognition (failure, negative memories/expectations, relation to behavior, relation to biology due to stress)  Biology (serotonin, dopamine)  Mood (relation to negative cognitions)  Relationships (relation to cognitions)  Constant cycle in relation to each other  Cognitive therapy: interpersonal therapy, enhancing relationships  Behavioral activation: more long term 10.06.16  Diathesis – stress o 1. Heritability, neurobiological o 2. Cognitive – interpretations/beliefs o 3. Coping skills  Bipolar disorders o Bipolar I Disorder: at least 1 manic episode, 1% US prevalence o Bipolar II Disorder: at least 1 hypomanic (hypo=less, less severe) episode and 1 depressive episode (no history of manic episode) Abnormal psych Unit 2 I guess o Cyclothymic Disorder: 2-years minimum duration of mild manic like symptoms and mild depressive-like symptoms (full criteria not met for either), about 4% prevalence  Manic Episode o 1 week of:  distinctly elevated, expansive or irritable mood  persistently increased goal-directed activity o And at least 3 of the following:  Rapid speech  Flights of ideas/racing thoughts  Decreased need for sleep  Increased self esteem (grandiosity)  Distractibility, easily diverted  Excessive involvement in activities likely to have painful consequences: spending, sexual indiscretions, unrealistic business ventures o 1-week duration, or any duration if hospitalization is needed o Not attributable to substance use or medical condition  Hypomanic Episode o Symptoms are milder than mania o No significant impairment o However, depressive episodes are impairing  Etiology o Heritability estimates 37% for MDD  Higher heritability for more severe depression o As high as 93% for bipolar I disorder  Also high for bipolar II o Differences in genes for serotonin transporter may interact with childhood maltreatment/adult life stressors  Neurotransmitters o Depression:  Low levels of serotonin?  Low sensitivity in serotonin receptors?  Insensitive dopamine receptors? o Mania  Overly sensitive dopamine receptors?  Psychosocial Contributions o MDD:  Life stressors  Interpersonal difficulties  Reduction in reinforcement Abnormal psych Unit 2 I guess  Inaccurate negative conditions o Manic episodes:  Shifts in sleep cycle  Increased activity patterns, accomplishments  Increased reward sensitivity  Interactive model o Cognitions/emotions/neurobiological/behaviors o Correlate and affect with each other  Treatments o Medication  SSRI: Selective serotonin receptor inhibitor  SNRI:  MAOI: Monoamine oxidation inhibitor o Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): aka shock therapy, given thousands of times, treatment of last resort, does not respond to at least 2 medications, success rate of 70%. Downside: month’s worth of memories gone??? Depression may come back o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation o For Bipolar Disorder: Lithium, mood stabilizers (Depakote), antipsychotics (Zyprexa) o


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