ARHU 2300 notes week 8
ARHU 2300 notes week 8 ARHI 2300
Popular in Art History I: Cave Painting to Michelangelo
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddi Huff on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 2300 at University of Georgia taught by Neely, Elizabeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Art History I: Cave Painting to Michelangelo in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People ARHI 2300- Cave Painting to Michelangelo Lecture Notes Week 8 10/2/16 Rome 1. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius- Statue of Marcus Aurelius on horseback a. Equestrian statue was often used for emperor portraits to show authority b. Statue is in an orator pose c. He is much larger in proportion than he should be to the horse d. He wears regular clothes and a thoughtful expression to emphasize that he is a philosopher e. It used to be believed that this was a statue of Constantine and therefore saved from destruction 2. After his rule, the Pax Romana breaks apart a. Emperors were often assassination, the economy tanked, and the state religion fell apart b. The tetrarchy (rule by four) is established i. The East and West are each ruled by a Caesar and Augustus ii. In the East: Diocletian- Augustus, Galerius- Caesar iii. In the West: Maxcimian- Augustus, Constantius- Caesar c. Four Tetrarchs- Statue carved from porphyry, an extremely expensive and precious material i. Bearded men are thought to be Augustus and the others thought to be Caesar. ii. There is very little individuality in the sculpture iii. They are embracing because they are a cohesive unit 3. Constantine 1- After death of Constantius, Constantine I takes his place and the four tetrarchs fall apart a. He was not a Christian until he was on his deathbed b. Arch of Constantine- Commemorates battle of the Milvian Bridge i. Created using spolia- elements used from other monuments in order for Constantine to align him to past rulers c. Distribution of Largesse- i. Stylistically similar to Four Tetrarchs ii. Marks transition from naturalism to early Christian art d. Basilica Nova- Large, multi-purpose civic center i. Largest basilica center in Ancient Rome ii. Becomes foundation of church architecture 10/5/16 Early Christianity 1. Judaism was a common practice in the Roman empire 2. Military action was only taken in extreme cases, such as a revolt 3. Mystery cults with secret inations began to form, such as Mithris and Christianity a. Christians were persecuted because they refused to honor the Roman gods, unlike other cults in Rome b. Diocletian was well-known for persecuting Christians Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People 4. Dura Europos- heavily fortified garrison town, located on cliff of Euphrates river a. Locted in Syria b. Contained many places of worship, such as a synagogue and Domus Eccclesia c. Though to be the first place to use chemical warfare to ward of Romans d. Synagogue- holy Jewish place of assembly and prayer i. Tora (religious book) was held on display ii. Samuel Anoints David 1. Uses hierarchy of Scale 2. God is not depicted, only as a had coming from the sky 3. No longer interested in realistic or idealized human forms, figures are very squat 4. Art was produced to glorify higher power 5. Emotionless, more interested in telling sacred story e. Domus Ecclesia- house church i. Area was used to baptize members into ii. Christ as the Good Sheppard 1. Christ surrounded by orants 2. Orant- figure that is praying 3. The old testament story, Jona and the whale, is also depicted, representing salvation from death 4. Christ is also depicted with the lamb, a motif of sacrifice 5. Constantine a. He defeated the Jewish revolt under the sign of the Chi Rho at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge b. Chi Rho- symbol that he saw in a vision c. Old Saint Peter’s Basilica- originally created by Constantine i. Peter is the rock on which Christ builds his church ii. He is considered to be the first pope d. Vocabulary i. Atrium- open colonnaded court in from of and attached to a Christian basilica ii. Narthex- porch of a church, general colonnaded proceeding the nave iii. Nave- central are if basilica or church demarcated from aisles iv. Aisles- flanking the nave v. Transept- part of the church with n axis that crosses the nave at a right angle vi. Arpse- a recess, usually semi-circular, in the wall of the building with the altar vii. Crossing- where nave and transept intersect viii. Baldacchino- canopy on columns, frequently built over an altar e. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus- i. He converted to Christianity very late in life and was baptized before death ii. He is not depicted on the funerary object iii. Etruscan influence iv. Depicts old and new testament scenes Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People 1. Early Christian art focuses on sacrifice and salvation v. Putti- cherubic young boys vi. Young Christ triumphs over old gods vii. He also rides donkey viii. Abraham is shown about to sacrifice himself for his son ix. Adam and Eve also depicted 10/7/16 1. Unlike today, there was only one form of Christianity that was practiced 2. They also believed in Eucharist- the bread and wine represents the reincarnation of the body and the blood of Christ 3. Sanra Costanza- a. Built for Constantine’s daughter b. Later converted to a church for Saint Agnes c. Centrally planned, which made it possible to circaumbulate d. Decorated with mosaics i. Floral motif depicts both her an Bacchus e. Religion is used for personal salvation through Christ 4. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia a. Theodosius the first makes Christianity the official religion of the roman empire, he is also the father of Galla b. Cruciform plan- cross shaped c. greek cross plan- short and squat, equal on both sides d. She commissioned many buildings in her life e. Basilica plan blended with cruciform plan f. Mosaics decorated the interior i. One depicted the cross in the center orbited by the evangelist symbols ii. Symbols- angel, lion, ox, eagle iii. Evangelists- writes of the gospel iv. Christ as the Good Shepard- depicts youthful Christ in imperial colors, surrounded by his flock. He also holds a cross
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