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ISS 315 Notes

by: Chelsea Dickens

ISS 315 Notes ISS 315

Chelsea Dickens
GPA 3.8

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These are the most updated notes as of 10/6/16. Email with questions or concerns!
Global Diversity/Interdepend
Y. Sinha
Class Notes
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Dickens on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 315 at Michigan State University taught by Y. Sinha in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
*Underlined words are vocab terms ISS 315 9/1/16 1) Yoganand Sinha a) 312 Baker b) 11: 45 pm T and Th c)3:45-4:45 pm F 2) Caitlin Vogelsberg a) 4A01 East Fee b) Wed. 10-11 am 3) 2 midterms and 1 Cummulative Final Homework: Start reading The Age of Empire 9/6/16 Globalization and Economic systems Biological diversity Cultural diversity -culture is informally learned and is the nature of the world around us and specifies our role in reality culture is how we should act toward human and object Who are we? Everyone has culture and culturally traditioned Enculturation-given to you by your culture without you being conscious of it  Not always aware of the choices we’re making  This is how things are done  What we get as we grow up -“This is a boy, this is a girl” “this is good, this is bad”  “Men are ‘pigs’” in the case of sexuality in American society  different assumptions for different cultures and different people Family  psychological and emotional concepts -concepts of love from different members of the family  family is monogyny-one man and one woman -traditonal family in the American culture  polygyny-one man several women vs. polyandry –one woman and several men  every culture has an incest taboo, cross- culturally it is variable not just limited to close family but several generations in some cultures  same sex marriage is legal but not accepted, or it is illegal but accepted Ethnocentrism  the ability of people from cultures to look upon different cultures as subordinate or wrong in comparison  you’re assumptions are right and theirs are wrong Cultural diversity limits communication or adopting their cultural traits cross-culturally  some degree of contact always existed between ancestral humans-i.e. genetic information  modern humans share some genetics and we can also look at shared cultural ideas between populations  hunting/gathering is the longest lasting strategy that has lasted in human existence -in low population you can use this for generations without depleting an environment or population -total equality between people -everyone knows how to do the same job -no social stratification  same wealth, same food access, etc. -simple lifestyle and ethically do not need stuff because they are nomads Generalized reciprocity  people are constantly giving and taking while no one keeps track of exchange or the time place in which it takes place because no one cares  dominant exchange pattern in hunter/gather societies linked in social ties -creates bonds and relationships between groups  The negative can occur when groups are removed from each other or ethnocentric towards one another  Can handle economic problems by the simple idea of repaying debt -Big man societies use generalized reciprocity to control government debts or corporate debts by calling all his favors in Excess goods are transferred to a group that may need it, redistributing wealth  Status and wealth increase from this  Doing it for status and prestige rather than capital accumulation- it is a general assumption in our society that people are motivated to help for wealth accumulation rather than other needs Balanced Reciprocity  Bartering between cultures that are unfamiliar with each other  This stops communication and contact after the exchange has been made -no social obligations to each other Negative Reciprocity  Take something and not giving something back  Raiding  Native American societies-Plain Indians  Excess wealth/goods can be raided or targeted by other people Can still be equally distributed Cultures and its barriers still to some degree of some type of exchange or communication amongst one another  Economic exchange-this has been known to promote the exchange of culturally ideas, art, science, language and other traits State Level Organization  Kings, knights, peasants  Different statuses -lower or greater access to resources 9/8/16 1.Recap-the culture, what makes culure-i.e. ideas, communication, ethnocentrism, social stratification, hierarchy systems 2.At this new age in time, there is contact between different people leading to interdependence a.Indians and Samaritans are coming into contact-proof is in the seals that are created for marketing i. We know because of specialization in Indian ancient cultures which were found in Samaria. ii. They were trading with multiple cultures such as Egypt and West Africa, even China 1.Interconnection between Asia and Middle East and West Africa 3.Countries prosper and promote sharing of cultures and ideas by connecting diverse regions of an empire together a.Roman Empire interconnected many different countries all throughout Europe i. Interconnected with other regions as well but did not globally reach other places in the world ii. Did not start global reach until the 1400s 4.1400s Europe was going through an expansive redevelopment a.religion, institutions, and systems were reshaped to create the modern world b.The Age of Discovery-i.e. Digamma and Columbus discovered new worlds and created great exports for Europe 5.Coastal regions in Asia and Africa prospered from the age of Discovery a.They did not receive any other benefits from this trade, nor did they receive an overall economic change i. Same in China, nothing really changed apart from a economic growth but not overall ii. Also, Cuba/Caribbean did not receive an overall economic change rather the people and culture of Africa were unchanged by the system of the Triangle Trade b.Europeans typically took lands and colonies by accident so the transformation of cultures was not systematic i. Trading in Calcutta, the English saw an opportunity to overthrow a weak king and India became a colony of England 1.Exploit peoples, displace native people, exploit resources c.There was no Global Economy in the 15 and 16 centuries i. The real change occurred during the Enlightenment 1.Intellectuals and reasoning 2.Contradicted the original belief and was considered radical to the other institutional teachings 6.1700s reasoning rather than faith and religion dominated popular thought a.Due to the Enlighten thinkers such as Rene Descartes b.predict the behaviors and processes of groups of people i. when people are rational they follow the model of predictability, or fundamental principles and laws of reason c.challenged foundations of European tradition i. clients, economy, art, language, science ii. everything became suspect to thought or rejection rather than the feudal order of society from the last few centuries 7.Adam Smith, 1776 wrote The Wealth of Nations a.Enlightenment thinker in the field of economics b.Rationalize economics, as long as people thought in rational ways the economy could be predicted by looking at people’s own self-interest, thus rewarding efficient and rational production i. Example, One expensive shoe store and a cheap store, people will buy from a cheaper store because of their own self-interest. The market is looking for the right price due to consumers and their choices and this influences the production of products ii. “The Invisible Hand”- Adam Smith 1.means that without anyone being involved directly the market knows how and what to sell due to consumers and their predictability and rational 2.owners know when to lower prices or make more efficient prices 3.The model only works when everyone is being rational in their actions 4.Also a problem in the case of monopolies or government tax exemption 8.For economics to work there needs to be a laissez-faire policy towards economics a.Otherwords, gov’t. should not interfere b.If the economy is left alone then it will succeed on its own via the principles of rationality and enlightened thought 9.Industrial Revolution a.Traditionally, goods were made by craftsmen guilds b.Goods are not made by guilds but rather efficiently through factories and without much skill i. Makes more money and more products c.Coincides with the evolution of science i. Creation of steam engine factories ii. Goods are produced at an unimaginable rate d.Increasing needs for a market to sell goods 10. Political Theorists they could base politics and government on rationality a.John Locke saw a blank slate when people were born, the people we become are due to the way we are raised (environment) i. An irrational environment causes for irrational people b.Society> creates individual>helps create the society and influences society c.Two countries in 1776 (U.S.) and 1789 (France) applied rational government in their countries d.This works only if people are well informed i. Problem with the U.S. 2016 election is that many people are not informed 11. Both revolutions changed Europe and the rest of the world a.Problems with this is that most of the people who supported the movements was the bourgeoisie people i. They were not people who owned land but rather people who were business owners, middle-class, who were involved with commerce ii. Embraced the industrial revolution and made good money, also embraced the democratic views of gov’t. b.Middle class finally becomes the dominant class 12. Society was getting better due to rational and enlightened thought and even was surpassing the advancements of the ancient world a.Cultural evolution – idea that societies are evolving and progressing through time b.Colonizing Asian and African nations would benefit them by being influenced by European rationale, making this a moral cause i. U.S. fighting in Benghazi, Iraq, and so forth today 9/13/16 1.Europe had adopted the ideas of democracy and rational economics 2.1805-1914 wars between European countries at this time due to the Enlightenment b.adoption of rational economics and technology led to a boom of wealth and creativity i. art and literature flourished 3.change is associated with the notion of progress during the Enlightenment a.things keep getting better all the time b.idea is still present today 4.innovations allow people to move technology, products, and communication more efficiently helping the global economy and also helping create it 5.increasing gap between first world and third world countries 6.destruction of traditional economies- actively getting rid of any competition in non-European countries a.Europe was creating textiles which took over for Asian and African cultures which traditionally made textiles 7.No fight against western imperialization since the opposing countries did not have any sense of commonality a.Meaning they could not find anything in common with each other culturally to fight the rise of European economy and development 8.Despotic kingdoms and empires such as in India and South America a.This was created by the ideals of race i. Black, brown, white ii. People can genetically and rationally grow to become closer to white or progressive indefinitely but genetics prevented them from going past the boundaries that separated them in society iii. Black^Brown^White b.Paternal notion of empires and colonization where European countries would introduce rational thought to colonial countries due to their incapability to take care of themselves c.White people’s burden d.Some groups are genetically superior e.White society there was a certain belief that some people were genetically superior and some were genetically inferior i. This is social Darwinism f. 1870s Europeans believed they would be forever the beacon of civilization i. the mass production of goods and agriculture as well as transportation led to crash in the market because of constant competition other words, a deflation, prices go down and wages go down suffer from the increase in production and export from foreign countries i. thus they either lose their farms or emigrate 9.Executives and other corporate hierarchies are created for efficiency and monetary gain a.Executives help to limit the owners role and help to control the processes in the company b.Beaucracy is also created i. white collar workers c.taylorism/Fordism i. companies would clock workers to see how long it took workers to complete a particular task ii. time and motion studies-in all factories d.Second Industrial Revolution era (1870s) i. New technologies and innovations allow for the production of a whole new set of goods 1.Steel, equipment, tools, chemicals, etc. 2.Mass production businesses required a lot of money ii. It was no longer easy for everyone to start up a business on their own without a lot of money up front e.Monopolies are created and discouraged free market competition i. Carnegie and Rockefeller and Vanderbilt 10. Governments tried to rescue the economy by setting up protectionist barriers or tariffs for exported goods a.Everyone was trying to protect their domestic businesses by taxing foreign goods 11. Growth of mass democracy a.Politicians wanted to appeal to the masses who were losing their jobs i. Did it by taxing any foreign goods 12. No self-correcting government beliefs from the market a.Classic capitalism or laissez-faire was no longer believed to be an effective form of economic policy b.Governments were loaning money to people to start up their own companies i. At this point, again, people needed large amounts of money to start a business c.Government promoted small domestic at the fall of a free market d.Economic rivalry between companies was shadowed by the country rivalries 13. Final response to depression of 1870s is imperialism and colonialism a.Governments believed this would help the domestic economy and getting out of the depression b.Colonies would be specialized to produce goods that would not compete with the domestic economy like raw goods-bananas, coffee, cane sugar, cocoa, etc. 14. A dual-economic system was created where domestic goods were manufactured in the country and the colonies created the raw goods a.Farmers could also migrate to the colonies and make plantations 15. Economic competition between countries to get colonies 16. Depression ended in 1890s a.Monopolies, government response, and colonies did not end b.No one went back to liberal capitalism and businesses were making tons of money 17. More countries became industrialized 18. America and Germany became more industrialized and economically expansive 19. 1870 to 1914 Europe was colonized and expansive countries where they had zones of influence prevalent a.China was influenced by Germany, US, England etc. 20. Politics and the economy together came to create the colonization and nation- state economies that were seen in this era a.Dense relationship between developed and undeveloped worlds 21. For the first time the entire world was under one economic system 22. Mining and plantations came to dominate third world economies a.One or two products could dominate an entire region’s economy 23. Excess goods could be dumped on to other colonies when the price of goods went down a.This never actually happened 24. Colonialism had little impact on the natives 25. New elites developed from western culture and education and replaced traditional elites 9/15/16 Recap: protectionism basically is the practice of putting a tax on another countries goods to protect domestic business in the home country -Taxes are also extended to the colonies so that the colonies will only buy into the domestic economy -raw goods are also produced in colonies and sold in the mother country to boost domestic economies  This was still practiced after the depression 1.Democracies saw everyone as equal even with the differences in environments and genetics 2.Superiority of whites over natives a.Based on genetic differences b.Racism justified colonialism and went back to the traditional belief that some people should rule due to their genetic superiority 3.Power shift to bourgeois class a.Excluding non-bourgeois from participating in political processes i. Property and literacy requirements 4.Commune of Paris a.Groups of workers took control of the city of Paris and threatened European gov’t. practice i. Wake up call on the suppression of workers’ demands 5.1871 a.votes were given to a vast majority of people across all classes b.restricted voting and relevance of legislature i. these ideas suddenly became ineffective and workers became the dominant group of people 6.Ruling class a.Aristocrats and businessmen 7.Middle class 8.Poor or peasant people a.Could also be factory workers 9.Mass political parties a.Ideologies of how the world should be i. Socialism-Marxism 1.Everyone is equal-workers utopia b.Ruling class was finally forced to take the political parties seriously- throughout Europe 10. Politicians no longer believed anything they promoted rather they became hypocritical 11. These parties posed a threat the nation because they undermined national unity 12. Career politicians became more dependent on withholding their jobs to survive 13. Revolving door between politicians and business through lobbying or favors 14. Patriotism undermines socialist visions so the nation’s boosted this idea to rid of the overpowering socialist parties of workers 15. Education and monuments/palaces helped to brainwash as well as create a sense of nationalism 16. To suppress communist parties nations would cooperate and include them in government a.Making policies and no more oppression b.Government had to make concessions to the workers in order to get them on their side i. Also had to abandon laissez-faire policy ii. Also had to become more beaucratic, larger, and more involved 17. Shift in the economies from agriculture to more technical and scientific business and farming practices a.Cities started to have more than one million people b.Farmers started migrating to the cities for factory jobs c.Peasants became the majority of the population 18. Working class finally received the rights to vote, 1870s a.People finally felt that they had power 19. The only people who were actively seeking out the working class was the socialists a.Marxists 20. Proletariats are workers who do not own property 21. In order for socialists to gain the forces that they wanted they had to focus on national policy and politics a.Eventually they stopped focusing on other countries’ working classes b.Lost revolutionary ideology and accepted capitalism as the depression came to a close and prosperity was revived under government concession and labor 22. Workers were never a homogenous group because in reality divisions between workers was existent due to competition between one another a.In other words, if you compete against an opponent you both can’t be on the same team, right? 23. Traditional values and nationalism in a country were torn down by the enlightenment 24. All of Europe began to think of themselves in national terms a.Every person should have their own nation-after the first world war and the Treaty of Versailles i. Shared culture b.Sense of national identity before even being a part of a nation c.Notions of shared communities gave the state a way to reach out to their citizens, or a way to get citizens to submit to their authority i. Standardized citizen ii. Education, literacy, flags d.Every nation needed to create a history in order to unite everyone and create a national unity e.Everyone had to speak the same language and have religion i. Anyone who was different (immigrant) was credited for creating disunity in the nation f. Groups in America, immigrants, created their own identity because they had none in their previous nation or in their new nation 25. Neonationalism – the false reality of the countries they came from 26. Foreigners became the target of nationalist parties a.Jewish in Europe b.Anti-Semitic-not liking a particular powerful group of people 27. Enlightenment notions were ridding of traditional values and was the basis of nationalism 28. Monopoly on nationalism-right wing 29. Countries were becoming rival economic blocks and opposed other countries in capitalism 9/20/16 Recap: Rise of nationalism 1.Religion is irrational 2.Institution engages people in civic responsibility a.This was nationalism’s purpose 3.No reason for a country’s greatness 4.Nationalist parties a.Is not an ideology therefore the effectiveness of these groups was reliant on socialism and socialist parties i. Utopian society for only one country rather than people from all countries 5.Any country or person who opposed the nationalist was a threat to a country and to society 6.Foreign ideals and nations are dangerous for society a.Nazis are actually national socialists 7.Role of the bourgeois a.Top of the social order around the 1870s b.Nobility was almost rid of due to their ties with landholding c.Working and business owning class became the large class i. Hard work, frugality, progress, etc. 1.The new ideals of the time 8.Bourgeois was no longer the dominate class a.No longer stood for hard work b.No more work, they no longer stood for frugality c.Young people were not expected to do much d.Differentiate themselves from the working class e.No longer stood for progress as they turned from liberal to conservative, right wing, parties f. Champions of tradition 9.Nations are barriers of trade to the bourgeois 10. A lot of social transformation was occurring a.Women’s votes b.Art focused on capturing non- aesthetic form and more emotion i. Embrace of the primitive was a way of saying that African and Asian artists were better and more authentic than that of Europeans ii. Europeans are not longer the most elite c.Science no longer presented a consistent view of the world or a fundamental belief on life d.Psychology was then influenced by the idea of the id where people will always have this part of themselves that is irrational e.NOTHING MADE SENSE TO THE BOURGEOIS ANYMORE 11. Period of 1870 to 1914 was considered a golden era a.Money, power, no wars, economy lifted, cultural boom 12. The world became interconnected and this caused other nations to feel repercussions in other remote parts of the world a.Issues in other countries came back to bite Europe in the butt b.Opium wars 13. Extraterritorial Zones of Influence – area of a country that belongs legally to another country a.Laws no longer apply in this area b.China had areas such as these that where European powers fought over regions in the country for their own profit c.Opium and the tax revenue also went through the Europeans instead of the emperor d.Before the Golden Era, 1860s 14. Ottoman empire was growing weaker a.Europe was on the brink of war trying to create colonies in this part of Africa 15. Russian Revolution a.Tsar Romanoff was trying to industrialize b.Problem-rural economy, so the only way to gain money was to tax farmers and peasants c.Social discontent d.1905 is the revolution demanding democratic reform e.1917 is when the communists took the royal family and killed them, second revolution 16. Wealth was created from 1805- 1914 a.Each country had made zones of influence and was a constant source of conflict 17. Conflicts threw off the balance of power for western nations a.Diplomacy or contracts between nations prevented war for many years 18. Most countries had enlisted men into the military while also instilling a sense of nationalism to prepare for a war in Europe 19. Tied industry and gov’t together 20. Certain countries were suffering from domestic problems so war was seen as a good thing for political stability 21. Triple Entente-Russia, England, and France 22. Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria, (Italy for a while), and Turkey (ottomans) 23. First World War began July 28 as Austrian heir Franz was assassinated by a serbian which made everybody think it was okay to start fighting their enemies 24. West lost its sense of progress and society with the war a.In other words, we don’t have anything to work for in the future 10/4/16 Enlightenment 1.Transformation of the Enlightenment from public to private domains a.Seen in the family 2.Thinkers tended to prioritize public values over private ones a.Civic responsibility i. Over love, family-private matters b.Difference of public and private life 3.How are we presented in public sphere? 4.In this model, enlightened self interest transforms private interest into civic responsibility a.Self-interest is married to public good b.I’m good and society is good and vice versa 5.Self-interest links individual to the community because their interest links with the welfare of others 6.First civil responsibility is politics a.Women of course are excluded from this but not in public discourse b.Selfishness of men c.Responsible for morality d.Welfare of all children 7.Men are responsible for the welfare of all women and children in the community 8.Religion in Early American Republic was to get people involved in the civic community a.Charity, church functions, etc. b.Universal government Checks on Individualism 9.Churches are cross-cultured, communal centers from all walks of life a.Poverty was no longer invisible to well-off members of society i. Fostered by rich who thought of the poor as their civic responsibility 10. Early Republic political involvement was tied to the community good a.Opposite of unrestrained individualism i. Acting for the good of all 11. Economics also restrained individualism a.Done at the local level b.No national or international system for the everyday Joe c.Fostering relationships between people when economy began to intertwine people together Roles 12. Gender roles were undefined 13. People that worked did not have defined public role, it was done at home a.Any one who could do a job would do it i. Farms-anyone who could physically or mentally do the job did it for their economic welfare 14. Domestic Mode of Production a.Women are expected more than men to take on civic duty for the good of community b.Both in this era had specific roles to play 15. Guilded Age 1870-1890 a.In this era middle class retreated from public engagement-no longer worried about social reform i. Gov’t left south after civil war without making sure oppression and racism was over b.Public morality was replaced with private morality c.Community-family d.Era of political corruption e.Big business takes over politics and economy i. Buying up the federal gov’t Classes 16. Social Darwinism-genetically poor or rich a.Why gov’t was reluctant to help the poor b.People who wanted to be charitable would only help public services and elevate the middle class i. Helping the poor would only create more poor people and whole bunch of deaths 17. Free-fall economic period a.Middle class focused more on their own financial security b.Distinct segments/socioeconomic levels of society in this era c.All groups became segregated along the different lines i. No one was interacting with other groups of people 18. Churches become segregated 19. Political agendas become social clubs 20. Religion instead promotes conservative views like law and order a.Morality is a family issue Middle class 21. Issues are due to other groups a.Materialistic rich and poor, after a good time i. Vanderbuilts built a castle on the east coast 22. Hedonistic- concerned with your own pleasure which is most important 23. Morality are attribute of individual 24. Parellels to guilded ages of 1980s a.Reagan Years b.Poor are hedonistic and bad but rich are good as opposed to 1880s where both classes were hedonistic or bad Poor and Women 25. Poor cannot adopt a different lifestyle because they were poor! 26. Children are forced to work a.Women are forced to work in 1980s and children are left alone at home b.Lax of family values-child neglect 27. WOMEN ARE BLAMED FOR POVERTY IN BOTH ERAS 28. Cuts in public spending from women and pregnant women 29. Even today the highest amount of welfare recipients are single mothers and young children 30. Public dialogue on morality stops becoming social concern Speaking Out 31. No more social processes 32. All expressions of morality are expressed in the language of private affairs even if they take place in public domain a.Personal relationships with politicians or none at all b.“I FEEL YOUR PAIN” comments from politicians Individualism and Private World 33. family becomes a mechanism for self-interest a.corruption is generally excused for the family b.spending at all is seen for the family and therefore righteous behavior 34. Public domain is world of men 35. Private world is world of women 36. Women increasingly are expected to work and therefore, in the public domain, has to be unfeminine and shrill a.Successful women are expected to be men or obtain aspects of men 10/6/16 1.Free Market Capitalism a.No real free market, even today b.Ideology or belief system 2.Sectors of economy were sheltered from competition a.Constant state of readiness for war against Russia so military needed to be protected from people who could steal it 3.International monetary fund helped developing countries in the 50s and 60s who did not have the money to feed themselves when the money on commodities fell a.Even caused political unrest b.These countries were repressive against their people i. We would side with dictators if it did not hurt the U.S. internally ii. They had to be aligned with us even if they were hurting their own people c.Extremes good or bad 4.White people control everything everywhere a.No political power, representation, no regulations, no gov’t services, no basic necessities for people in minorities b.When the people in the developing world wanted to rebel they were considered communist and were put down by their gov’t 5.Gov’t interest in all of the developing countries a.Guatemala most of the land in the country was owned by one company (United Fruit Company) i. U.S. was appealed to by the company to shut down the locals (who were considered communist) ii. Country and people were considered communist iii. U.S. incited a dictatorship to protect business and incited years of civil war b.Iran had lots of oil and democratic gov’t i. Nationalize oil fields, controlled by other countries ii. President wanted Iranian control of oil 1.We thought it meant messing with the free market iii. U.S. incites long lost Shah in control of Iran, becoming pro-U.S. 1.Uses money from oil to suppress people 6.It doesn’t matter if a country was any but democratic as long as they were for us a.They couldn’t interfere with the free market b.Karl Marx felt free market ruined institutions because it would interfere with capitalism i. Promoting inequality 7. Russia had a system where all aspects were controlled by the gov’t 8.Invisible hand no longer determined economy it was all being controlled by the central gov’t 9.System failed sometimes just because sometimes there was a change in supply and demand 10. Beauacrat could choose not to make changes 11. Russia controlled the back economy and U.S. controlled the foremost economy a.Most countries were in between the two b.Developing world was in modified capitalism with regulations i. i.e. socialism 12. 1991 Collapse of the U.S.S.R. a.problem was their economy which couldn’t keep up their needs b.clients abandoned this communist economic model c.many countries found it hard to become more open in terms of economic activity with other countries 13. More global economy a.China began to open up their economy to free market forces such as U.S. b.New global economic system 14. Capitalism was the only economy left after the fall of communism a.WTO-world trade organization makes sure that everything such as currency, protectionism, etc. are fair 15. Agriculture was exempt from the free market openness a.Free developing countries, from the colonial era, would not be as competitive if they were in a free market b.In a short period of time these domestic economies in the U.S. and other countries would disappear c.They had nothing to trade with the goods they were demanding i. Labor force works for lower wages 16. Goods today are made all over! 17. Some companies are exceedingly successful and are not able to generate jobs anymore a.Factories are relocating everywhere to wherever jobs are cheapest 18. Free trade is important a.Economic rationality is married to efficiency b.Generates more wealth 19. Trade increases overall wealth of the country a.Up to the country where excess wealth goes in that country b.Ideally excess money should go to all sectors of the country 20. Wealth will be appropriated by those who are already wealthy a.May not benefit the country’s middle class


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