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Chemistry Week 4 Notes

by: Rheanna Gimple

Chemistry Week 4 Notes CHEM 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > CHEM 113 > Chemistry Week 4 Notes
Rheanna Gimple

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Week one of Chemical Kinetics
General Chemistry 2 (CHEM 113)
Staff, Chem
Class Notes
Chemistry, chemical, kinetics, reaction, Rates, General Chemistry
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rheanna Gimple on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 113 at Colorado State University taught by Staff, Chem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 (CHEM 113) in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chemical Kinetics Week 1:  Kinetics: the study of rates of chemical reactions and reaction mechanisms A + B  C + D o Reactions depend on molecular collisions  Reaction Rates o Rate of reaction is change in concentration of a reactant/product over time Rate ¿ ∆Concentration ∆Time  Units: M/s  Rate > 0  Rate in Terms of Concentrations 2 A  B o A disappears twice as fast as B appears since there are twice as many moles of A o Appearance/disappearance rates always correlate to their coefficients in a balanced reaction aA + bB  dD + eE ∆[A] ∆T −1 ∆[ ] 1 ∆ [ ] Reaction Rate= ) = ( ) ( ) = () ( ) = (−1 )¿ a ∆t d ∆t a 1 ∆[ ] (e ( ∆t o Example: N O2d5composes is 4.2 x 10 M/s in a particular instant, what is the rate of appearance of2NO at that instant? 2 N2O5 (g) 4 NO 2 (g)O2 (g) -7  8.4 x 10 M/s because there are twice as many moles of NO 2s N O 2 5  Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate o Rate of reaction occurs quicker when there is a higher concentration of reactants  Rate Laws o Rate law: mathematical equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentration of the reactants in the reaction o In a one-step reaction: rate law correlates directly to stoichiometry in a balanced equation o In multi-step reactions: rate law is based on the stoichiometry of reactants in slowest elementary step of the reaction  Rate law can only be determined experimentally  Slowest step is rate determining step  Most reactions are multi step  Rate Law Overall Rxn: aA + bB  cC + dD m n R = k[A] [B] o m and n are determined experimentally o The rate constant (k) is temperature dependent and specific for each reaction o Chemical equilibrium: equal but opposite reaction rates  Dynamics of chemical equilibrium  When ratio of reactants to products remains the same o No net change of identity of molecules in a system  Reaction Order aA + bB  cC + dD m n R = k[A] [B] o reaction is m order with respect to A th o reaction is n order with respect to B o Overall reaction order is (m + n ) order  Rate Constant Units  What are the units for the rate constant, k, for the reaction orders below? Units of k -1 Zero Order Reaction: R = k s M s -1 First Order Reaction: R = k[A] M s -1 Second Order Reaction: R = k[A]2  The Initial Rates Method R = k[A] [B] n o Zero order reactions: change in concentration of reactants have no effect on the rate of reaction o First order reactions: if a reactant’s concentration is doubled the 1 rate doubles (2 increase) o Second order reactions: doubling a reactant’s concentration causes reaction to increase by 2 2 o Nth order reaction: doubling a reactant’s concentration causes reaction to increase by 2 n  Reaction order for A  products −∆ A Zero-order: Rate = = k[A] = k ∆T −∆ A First-order: Rate = ∆T = k[A] −∆ A 2 Second-order: Rate = ∆T = k[A]  Integrated Rate Laws: o Relate time passed in a reaction to the remaining reactant concentration o When to use integrated rate laws:  Time/concentration questions like  How long will it take for reactant concentration to be reduced by X%?  How much reactant will remain after 5 hours? Zero-order reaction [A]t– [A]0= -kt A o First-order reaction ln ([ ] ) = kt 1 1 Second order reaction [ ]t – [ ]o = kt o [A] a0d [A] art the concentrations of the reactant at t = 0 and a later time, t.  Rate Laws and Half-Life o Half-life: time it takes for the reactant concentration to decrease by one-half its original value t 1/2(time when [A] =t½ [A] ). 0 A } Zero-order reaction: 1/2= 0 2k Half life time stays the same for each half life  0.693 First-order reaction: 1/2= k  If unit of time uses a reciprocal, will always be first order 1 Second-order reaction: t 1/2 k A [ ]0  Time of each half-life decreases exponentially


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