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Psych Week 6

by: Maya Silver-Isenstadt

Psych Week 6 PSYC298D

Maya Silver-Isenstadt

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Week 6 lecture
Living the Good Life: The Psychology of Happiness
Dylan Selterman
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maya Silver-Isenstadt on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC298D at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Week Six Mindset ● Optimism ○ Expectation that good things will happen ○ Agency (you can control outcome) ○ Little optimism “ I will find a good parking spot” ○ Big optimism “ The world is on the right track” ○ Dispositional optimism is from personality trait. ○ Attribution style ■ Positive = explanatory ■ Negative = accusatory ● Negative Events ○ Locus and stability (likelihood of repetition) ○ Social rejection ○ Good (external) ○ There is a direct link between action and outcome ● Uncontrollable aversive events ○ Learned Helplessness ○ Aversive events without control leads to deficits on goal-oriented tasks ● Optimism bias ○ Self-serving bias (better-than-average effect) ○ View yourself as above average ○ Positive illusions in relationships ○ Memory biases ● Self-propaganda ○ Information control strategies ○ Biased (downward) social comparison *the mind is like a totalitarian regime. It blocks bad things and internalizes good ● Effort justification ○ Cognitive dissonance ○ Long-term goals (ex. Close relationships) *people like to think they are growing ○ 6-month positivity bias ○ Remember past as better than it was ● Social Comparison ○ Role of ambiguity in defining traits ■ Leadership could be 1) confidence in direction others 2) trailblazing 3) communication ● Study ○ Scientists coded essays from young adults in the military and looked for optimism. Physical health exam 35 years later showed more positive results if the person had more optimism. ○ Presidential candidate speeches were received better if they were optimistic. ○ Hope induction ■ Think of an important goal in your mind and imagine yourself achieving it. Then put your hand into ice water. Hopeful people held 150 seconds compared to 90seconds (control). No difference in the reports of pain… only tolerance. ● Three stages of evolution ○ Reptilian → Avoid hazards ○ Mammalian → approach rewards/striving towards positive things ○ “Bad is stronger than good” ○ “There are the quick and there are the dead” ○ Learned helplessness and anxiety are easier to learn. ○ Bad info carries more weight than good infor. ○ Response bias ■ People favor false alarms over misses ■ Risk aversion and loss aversion ■ Better to flee if there is danger ● Type 1--false positive ● Type 2-- Have significant result but didn’t detect it. ● Historical Focus ○ Disorders, conflict, unhappiness in psychology ○ Normative optimism bias but..bad >> good ○ Attention does NOT equal processing and decision making ○ Negative captures attention. Positive stems from motivated reasoning. ■ (What we see versus what we want)


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