Chem Week 6
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maya Silver-Isenstadt on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC298D at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter Six 6.1) 1. Morphine comes from opium poppy 2. Endorphins act as body’s painkillers 3. Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) 6.2) 1. Lewis dots show electrons as equally shared when that is not always the case. Ex) HF a. The bond here is polar (Intermediate between pure covalent and ionic) It is polar covalent 2. Electronegativity increases up and to the right. 3. Greater electronegativity difference, more polar bond. 4. Dipole moment 5. Percent ionic character a. Measured dipole moment of bond/dipole moment if electron were completely transfered (times 100%) 6.3) 1. Hydrogen atoms are always terminal 2. More electronegative elements are terminal 3. If atoms lack det/octet, form double bond. 6.4) 1. Resonance → 2 or more valid structures can work. Calculate formal charge and discriminate between structure 2. Neutral structure is resonance hybrid 3. Delocalization lowers energy and stabilizes 4. Resonance stabilization 5. Formal charge: charge it would have if all electrons were shared equally 6. Formal charge → # valence electrons - (#nonbonding electrons + .5(#bonding electrons)) a. Sum of all formal charges in neutral molecule = 0 b. Sum of all formal charges in ion = charge of ion c. Small (or zero) formal charges on individual atoms are better than large ones d. When formal charge can’t be avoided, negative charge should reside on most electronegative atom 6.5) 1. Exceptions for octet rule a. Odd electron species b. Incomplete octet c. Expanded octet 2. Free radicals (odd # electrons) 6.6) 1. Bond energies and lengths 2. Bond energy (E) is energy required to break 1 mol of bond. 3. Single bond < double < triple bond (most energy) 4. Bond length is the average length of bond between two atoms 5. Triple is shorter than double and single 6.7) 1. Electron groups repel each other through coulombic forces 2. Repulsions from interior atoms determined geometry.
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