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Week 6

by: Laura Castro Lindarte
Laura Castro Lindarte

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On Monday we began to talk about primates (chapter 7) . Wednesday was exam 1.
Biological Anthropology
W. Barr
Class Notes
Biological, Anthropology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by W. Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/08/16
October 3, 2016 Primate Adaptive Trends ● Trends that influence primates influence humans ● Kingdom: animalia, phylum: chordata, class: mammalia, ​ rder: primates, ​family: hominidae, genus: homo, species: sapiens ● Primates are mammals ○ Ancestral homologies: features primates share with other mammals because they come from mammal ancestor: ■ Mammary glands t​ hat produce milk to nourish young ■ Homeothermy ( ​ fur for insulation, sweat glands) ■ Heterodonty ​ different type of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, molars) ■ Expansion of the​ eocortex of the brain ■ Placenta, long gestatio​ ollowed by live birth ■ Maternal case of young ● Traits that are unique to primates are ​derived traits (unique to order) ● LOTS OF VARIATION ​depending on diet and environment ● Better to look at ​broad trends ​than specific trends ○ Based on history of living on trees and eating insects ○ Will not be seen in ALL primates 1. Petrosal bulla: ​bulla in base of skull is made of petrosal​ LL primates have it and has no known function 2. High degree of grasping with hands and feet:​ ll have some degree of ability to grasp with both (even humans can grasp with feet even though they don’t have opposable big toe) a. Opposable thumbs and big opposable toe b. Most have nails, not claws:​ ot sharp pointy class but smooth flat nail, only one group of new world monkeys don’t i. Probably because easier to grasp c. Sensitive tactic pads with skin ridges on tip of d​ ave raised ridges that make fingerprints, easier to grasp because increases friction and allows to feel small details 3. Decrease dependence on smell, especially in haplorhines a. Olfactory regions of the brain are reduced in size, haplorhines have higher percentage of pseudogenes among the olfactory receptor gene family ​than other mammals, especially in humans b. Nasal structure of skull are reduced ​(small snout) c. Haplorhines lack moist naked skin around nostril (rhinarium) 4. Stereoscopic vision and enhanced depth perception: h ​ aplorhines can see tricolor vision a. Early mammals have eyes on side of head so see more around, p ​ rimate have eyes in front to see less around and more in front which helps with 3D vision i. Overlapping field of vision help with depth, binocular vision b. Also brain wired so both visual cortices get information from BOTH EYES i. Trichromatic color vision in old world monkeys, apes, humans and new world monkeys (blue, green and red) ii. Rods-only light reflection (monochromatic so black/white), cones- have pigment sensitive for different wavelengths (see color) iii. Most mammals see dichromatic (only blue and greens) → better for seeing camouflage 5. Postorbital bar ​ enclosed with complete bony orbit),​ ome might even have wall in back of orbit (postorbital closure) 6. LARGE brain relative to body size and expanded neocortex a. True in all parts of development, way more neurons b. Good for memory, visual processing 7. Prolonged life (long childhood and adulthood) a. Develop slowly and invest heavily in offspring (mostly give birth to one offspring) b. LONGER INFANCY AND JUVENILE PERIODS and h ​ ave delayed reproductive maturation c. Long lifespans and gestation d. Seen in all primates but enhanced in humans ● PRIMATES ARE VERY SOCIAL ○ Tend to live in small groups and maintain close bonds (positive or negative) ○ Learn from group mates, ​one reason for that long childhood ● Ancestral homologies: ○ Generalized body plan ■ Retention of the collarbone ​ clavicle) ■ Two separate bones in lower arm ( ​ ulna and radius) ■ Five digits of the hands and feet ○ Generalized dentition ■ Heterodonty ● Also display diversity in ​locomotor and dietary adaptations ● Primates have​ retained a generalized postcranial anatomy October 5, 2016 Exam 1


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