Psych 1101, Week 7 Notes
Psych 1101, Week 7 Notes Psych 1101
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Cole on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Russell in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Psychology WK 7 Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, ad Sexuality Sex: Biological (XY or XX; anatomy) Gender: cultural/ Experiential- Male or Female o Individual a person experience over their life (roles) rd 23 chromosome pair: o mother gives child X chromosome o Father gives X or Y chromosome Puberty- time period of developing more sex characteristics o Primary sex characteristics- things you have to have for reproduction o Secondary sex characteristics- hair growth Gender role- society’s expectations of male or female. Gender Identity- type of gender- male or female- we feel more comfortable with. Social learning theory- watching someone do something and imitate what the same sex is doing. o Punishments and praises Gender schemas- how you organize information of what is male and female. Transgender- gender identity is opposite of bio sex Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Sensory receptors detect stimulation Transduction: converts incoming energy into electrochemical energy Thresholds Absolute Thresholds – minimum level needed (one stimulus) o Light-a candle flame at 30 miles away on a dark clear night o Sound- the tick of a watch under quiet conditions at 20 feet. o Taste- one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Difference thresholds- just noticeable difference. Minimum difference needed (two stimulus) Weber’s law- for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount) Sensory adaption- when you have a constant stimulus, body starts ignoring it. (decreases sensitivity to it.) Light energy-from the environment into the brain Frequency (wavelength)- distance from peak to peak. o Frequency is how many times a wave repeats. Amplitude (intensity)- how high wavelength is, brightness. Vision: The Eye Transduction happens in the retina Fovea- best detail vision- center of your vision. Only cones present here Photoreceptors: Cones- sensitive to detail and color (receptors) Rods- sensitive to faint light. More rods than cones (receptors) 2 Parallel Processing- in general your brain is able to deal with multiple things at the same time. Perception: o Incoming stimuli (bottom-up processing)- individual pieces of information, you then put together. Requires that bottom-up relies on transduction. o Past knowledge (top-down processing)- starts at a thinking level, interpret information coming based on the preconception. Expectation. Feature detection- having individual neurons that code specific pieces of information. Perceptual Organizations Gestalt Principles- full or whole image/ object or whole. How do we see a train, verses lines? o Figure-ground- Figure= object/front. Ground= background o Form perception- human minds use these grouping strategies to see patterns and objects. Proximity, closure, Continuity. Depth perception- able to see an object as a 3D object. Distance o Monocular cues (pictorial cues)- just one eye is being used. Linear perception- lines are parallel in the real world, but they appear to converge in your viewpoint. Relative size (top-down processing)- the bigger object is going to be closer, and smaller is going to be further away. 3 Light and shadow- shadows that are darker, are closer. But lighter the shadow- the further away it is. Interposition- overlapping. Object that is partly covered, is further away than the object that is whole. Texture gradient- the texture is going to be easiest to see closer to you, but further away the texture is hard to see. o Binocular cues- when both eyes are being used. Retinal disparity- the two eyes see slightly different images; your brain is going to automatically pieces them together. Calculates distance. o The Visual Cliff- Eleanor Gibson (1960)- checkerboard cliff. Use relative size, retinal disparity, texture gradient. Light and shadowing. Perceptual Constancy- ability to see objects as the same, even though lighting, distance and orientation change. Shape constancy- you see the same object. Color constancy- Size constancy- objects are the same size even though there is a distance between them. 4