His 102, Week 2, Ch 15 Notes
His 102, Week 2, Ch 15 Notes His 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tessa Peak on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 102 at Northern Virginia Community College taught by Dr. Dluger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization II in History at Northern Virginia Community College.
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His 102 Notes Ch. 15: Absolutism and Empire, 16601789 A. The Appeal and Justification of Absolutism a. Promise of stability was an appealing alternative to the disorder of the “iron century” b. Louis XIV felt that he must rule assertively and without limitation if France was to survive as a great European state c. Sought control of the state’s armed forces and its legal system, and demanded the right to collect and spend the state’s financial resources at will created an efficient, centralized bureaucracy d. Tried to bring the Roman Catholic church under royal control e. Nobles were most important potential opponents of royal absolutism B. The Absolutism of Louis XIV a. Performing Royalty at Versailles i. Louis XIV had a magnificent palace at Versailles where he moved his court, and required nobility to live there for certain parts of the year ii. Nobility retained power over local peasants within jurisdiction b. Administration and Centralization i. Louis’ responsibilities in absolutist terms: concentrate royal power so as to produce domestic tranquility ii. Taxes collected by administrators for army (for foreign policy) iii. Government introduced a capitation (head tax) and collected indirectly on many goods c. Louis XIV’s Religious Policies i. Louis determined to impose religious unity; Louis supported the Jesuits and waged war against the Protestant Huguenots (many fled) d. Colbert and Royal Finance i. Jean Baptiste Colbert king’s finance minister who helped Louis unify and centralize France ii. Imposed tariffs on foreign goods imported into France and promoted domestic manufacturing iii. Eventually, cost of war shattered foreign policy and country’s finances C. Alternatives to Absolutism a. English monarchy was most significant exception to the trend toward absolutism b. Limited Monarchy: The Case of England i. English Parliament was the longestsurviving representative assembly in Europe ii. The Reign of Charles II 1. Declared limited religious toleration for Protestant dissenters and promised to observe Magna Carta and Petition of Right 2. Openly modeled his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV which caused the public to divide iii. The Reign of James II 1. Opposite of brother Charles; flaunted own Roman Catholicism and ordered Church of England clergymen to read his decree from pulpit iv. The Glorious Revolution 1. James fled from an invading army and Parliament declared the throne vacant, allowing William and Mary to succeed him 2. Passed Bill of Rights which reaffirmed English civil liberties 3. Firmly established England as a mixed monarchy governed by the “king of Parliament” v. John Locke and the Contract Theory of Government 1. Opponent of absolutism; only law was the law of nature, but inconveniences outweighed advantages so civil society set up a government 2. Powers of government reserved to the people D. War and the Balance of Power, 16611715 a. Louis XIV’s foreign policy reflected belief that military victories abroad were necessary to reinforce the glory of his realm i. The War of the Spanish Succession 1. Louis XIV’s grandson Philip V became king of Spain after Charles II died; War of the Spanish Succession began ii. The Treaty of Utrecht 1. War came to an end in 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht 2. Louis agreed France and Spain would never be united under the same ruler 3. Reshaped balance of power in western Europe; Britain and France now dominant powers E. The Remaking of Central and Eastern Europe a. The Habsburg Empire i. 1683 Ottoman power in southeastern Europe declined rapidly ii. 1718 Austria reconquered all of Hungary from the Ottomans, and also Transylvania and Serbia iii. Vienna emerged as a great cultural and political capital iv. Habsburg absolutism limited by diversity of imperial territories and by the weakness of its local governmental institutions b. The Rise of BrandenburgPrussia i. After collapse of the Ottoman Empire, main threat to Austria was BrandenburgPrussia ii. Foundations of Prussian expansion laid by Frederick William the “Great Elector”; Great Elector’s son earned the right to call himself king in Prussia and made Prussia a strong state iii. Through relentless diplomacy and frequent war, Frederick transformed Prussia into a powerful, contiguous territorial kingdom with a powerful and efficient bureaucracy F. Autocracy in Russia a. More dramatic transformation took place in Russia under Tsar Peter I b. The Early Years of Peter’s Reign i. Overthrew regency of halfsister and assumed personal control of the state c. The Transformation of the Tsarist State i. Peter most famous as the tsar who attempted to westernize Russia by imposing a series of social and cultural reforms on traditional Russian nobility ii. Peter’s goal was to make Russia a great military power iii. Reversed traditional hierarchy of Russian noble society by insisting that they work their way up from lower to highest classes iv. Replaced national assembly with handpicked senate and took direct control over Russian Orthodox Church d. Peter’s Foreign Policy i. Goal was to secure yearround ports for Russia on the Black & Baltic Seas ii. Secured a foothold on the Gulf of Finland where he began a new capital city named St. Petersburg iii. Peter’s victory came at a cost direct taxation increased 500% and army numbered more than three hundred thousand men e. Catherine the Great and the Partition of Poland i. Came to throne after death of husband Tsar Peter III; determined not to lose support of nobility ii. Greatest achievements gained through war and diplomacy; won control over northern cost of black sea and several Ottoman provinces in the Balkans iii. Frederick the Great proposed partition of Poland; Poland lost about 30% of territory and half of population G. Commerce and Consumption a. Economic Growth in EighteenthCentury Europe i. Britain and Holland producing more food per acre and new crops increased supply of food ii. Infectious disease continued to kill half of Europeans before age 20 iii. Northwestern Europe became increasingly urbanized; prosperity depended on developments in trade, manufacturing, and agriculture iv. Puttingout system led to more employment and higher levels of industrial production b. A World of Goods i. Mass market for consumer goods emerged in Europe; houses stocked with uncommon luxuries and prices rose and demand continued th ii. Almost everywhere in urban Europe, 18 century became the golden age of the small shopkeeper; advertising became increasingly important iii. Resulted in a European economy more complex, specialized, integrated, commercialized and productive than anything before H. Colonization and Trade in the Seventeenth Century a. Many staples products of Europe’s colonial empires in Asia, Africa, and Americas; “Columbian exchange” b. Spanish Colonialism i. Spanish established colonial governments in Peru and Mexico and only allowed Spanish merchants to trade with American colonies Spanish economy dominated by mining ii. Spanish replaced existing elites with Spanish administrators and churchmen; attempted to convert people to Catholicism iii. Result was widespread cultural assimilation between Spanish colonizers and native population combined with relatively high degree of intermarriage c. French Colonialism i. Matured under mercantilist finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert; encouraged development of sugarproducing colonies in the West Indies ii. Colonies established and administered as direct crown enterprises d. English Colonialism i. No significant mineral wealth; sought profits by establishing agricultural settlements in North America and Caribbean basin ii. Began as private ventures, either proprietary or jointstock companies iii. Wanted complete and exclusive control over native lands; set out to eliminate indigenous peoples of their colonies intermarriage was rare e. Dutch Colonialism i. Generally followed the “fort and factory” model established by Portuguese in Asia; established Dutch monopoly within Europe over different spices ii. Pioneered new financial mechanisms for investing in colonial enterprises f. Colonial Rivalries i. Fortunes of empires changed dramatically in the course of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries; Spain unable to defend early monopoly over colonial trade, Portugal found impossible to prevent foreign penetration of colonial empire ii. Treaty of Urecht opened new era of colonial rivalries where biggest losers were Dutch and winners were British I. The Triangular Trade in Sugar and Slaves a. European colonial trade came to be dominated by transAtlantic routes b. New England>Africa (rum traded for slaves)>Jamaica/Barbados (slaves traded for molasses>New England (molasses made to rum) c. England>Africa (cheap manufactured goods for slaves)>Virginia (exchanged for tobacco)>England d. Cultivation of New World sugar and tobacco depended on slave labor e. The Commercial Rivalry between Britain and France i. British dominance of slave trade gave decisive advantages in colonial struggles with France ii. Growing value of colonial commerce tied interests of governments and transoceanic merchants together in tight embrace f. War and Empire in the EighteenthCentury World i. Peace shattered in Western Europe when Frederick the Great of Prussia took advantage of accession of woman to seize Austrian province of Silesia ii. Prussia attacked by Austria but allied itself with Great Britain; Austria found support from France and Russia; Seven Years’ War ended in stalemate g. The American Revolution i. Rapidly growing British colonies on Atlantic seaboard beginning to chafe at rule from London; British tried to tax colonies to recover from Seven Years’ War, which were immediately unpopular ii. Boston harbortea dumping, Coercive Acts; Continental Congress began raising an army and outright rebellion erupted against British government iii. July 4, 1776 colonies formally declared independence from Great Britain; French joined the side of Americans which helped them to win; British army surrendered at Yorktown J. Conclusion a. War of Independence final military conflict between Great Britain and France for colonial dominance b. Great Britain remain most important trading partner for American colonies c. Prosperity of late 18 century Europe remained very unevenly distributed; political change more gradual