New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

His 102, Week 2, Ch 15 Notes

by: Tessa Peak

His 102, Week 2, Ch 15 Notes His 102

Marketplace > Northern Virginia Community College > History > His 102 > His 102 Week 2 Ch 15 Notes
Tessa Peak
GPA 4.0
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for History of Western Civilization II

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive History of Western Civilization II notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes are from the textbook, Ch 15. It will be useful for the midterm exam, as key points will come from the chapter.
History of Western Civilization II
Dr. Dluger
Class Notes




Popular in History of Western Civilization II

Popular in History

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tessa Peak on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 102 at Northern Virginia Community College taught by Dr. Dluger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization II in History at Northern Virginia Community College.


Reviews for His 102, Week 2, Ch 15 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/08/16
His 102 Notes­ Ch. 15: Absolutism and Empire, 1660­1789 A. The Appeal and Justification of Absolutism a. Promise of stability was an appealing alternative to the disorder of the “iron  century” b. Louis XIV felt that he must rule assertively and without limitation if France was  to survive as a great European state c. Sought control of the state’s armed forces and its legal system, and demanded the  right to collect and spend the state’s financial resources at will­ created an  efficient, centralized bureaucracy d. Tried to bring the Roman Catholic church under royal control e. Nobles were most important potential opponents of royal absolutism B. The Absolutism of Louis XIV a. Performing Royalty at Versailles i. Louis XIV had a magnificent palace at Versailles where he moved his  court, and required nobility to live there for certain parts of the year ii. Nobility retained power over local peasants within jurisdiction b. Administration and Centralization i. Louis’ responsibilities in absolutist terms: concentrate royal power so as to produce domestic tranquility ii. Taxes collected by administrators for army (for foreign policy) iii. Government introduced a capitation (head tax) and collected indirectly on  many goods c. Louis XIV’s Religious Policies i. Louis determined to impose religious unity; Louis supported the Jesuits  and waged war against the Protestant Huguenots (many fled) d. Colbert and Royal Finance i. Jean Baptiste Colbert­ king’s finance minister who helped Louis unify and centralize France ii. Imposed tariffs on foreign goods imported into France and promoted  domestic manufacturing iii. Eventually, cost of war shattered foreign policy and country’s finances C. Alternatives to Absolutism a. English monarchy was most significant exception to the trend toward absolutism b. Limited Monarchy: The Case of England i. English Parliament was the longest­surviving representative assembly in  Europe ii. The Reign of Charles II 1. Declared limited religious toleration for Protestant dissenters and  promised to observe Magna Carta and Petition of Right 2. Openly modeled his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV  which caused the public to divide iii. The Reign of James II 1. Opposite of brother Charles; flaunted own Roman Catholicism and ordered Church of England clergymen to read his decree from  pulpit iv. The Glorious Revolution 1. James fled from an invading army and Parliament declared the  throne vacant, allowing William and Mary to succeed him 2. Passed Bill of Rights which reaffirmed English civil liberties 3. Firmly established England as a mixed monarchy governed by the  “king of Parliament” v. John Locke and the Contract Theory of Government 1. Opponent of absolutism; only law was the law of nature, but  inconveniences outweighed advantages so civil society set up a  government 2. Powers of government reserved to the people D. War and the Balance of Power, 1661­1715 a. Louis XIV’s foreign policy reflected belief that military victories abroad were  necessary to reinforce the glory of his realm i. The War of the Spanish Succession 1. Louis XIV’s grandson Philip V became king of Spain after Charles II died; War of the Spanish Succession began ii. The Treaty of Utrecht 1. War came to an end in 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht 2. Louis agreed France and Spain would never be united under the  same ruler 3. Reshaped balance of power in western Europe; Britain and France  now dominant powers E. The Remaking of Central and Eastern Europe a. The Habsburg Empire i. 1683­ Ottoman power in southeastern Europe declined rapidly ii. 1718­ Austria reconquered all of Hungary from the Ottomans, and also  Transylvania and Serbia iii. Vienna emerged as a great cultural and political capital iv. Habsburg absolutism limited by diversity of imperial territories and by the weakness of its local governmental institutions b. The Rise of Brandenburg­Prussia i. After collapse of the Ottoman Empire, main threat to Austria was  Brandenburg­Prussia ii. Foundations of Prussian expansion laid by Frederick William­ the “Great  Elector”; Great Elector’s son earned the right to call himself king in  Prussia and made Prussia a strong state iii. Through relentless diplomacy and frequent war, Frederick transformed  Prussia into a powerful, contiguous territorial kingdom with a powerful  and efficient bureaucracy F. Autocracy in Russia a. More dramatic transformation took place in Russia under Tsar Peter I b. The Early Years of Peter’s Reign i. Overthrew regency of half­sister and assumed personal control of the state c. The Transformation of the Tsarist State  i. Peter most famous as the tsar who attempted to westernize Russia by  imposing a series of social and cultural reforms on traditional Russian  nobility ii. Peter’s goal was to make Russia a great military power iii. Reversed traditional hierarchy of Russian noble society by insisting that  they work their way up from lower to highest classes iv. Replaced national assembly with hand­picked senate and took direct  control over Russian Orthodox Church d. Peter’s Foreign Policy i. Goal was to secure year­round ports for Russia on the Black & Baltic Seas ii. Secured a foothold on the Gulf of Finland where he began a new capital  city named St. Petersburg iii. Peter’s victory came at a cost­ direct taxation increased 500% and army  numbered more than three hundred thousand men e. Catherine the Great and the Partition of Poland i. Came to throne after death of husband Tsar Peter III; determined not to  lose support of nobility ii. Greatest achievements gained through war and diplomacy; won control  over northern cost of black sea and several Ottoman provinces in the  Balkans iii. Frederick the Great proposed partition of Poland; Poland lost about 30%  of territory and half of population G. Commerce and Consumption a. Economic Growth in Eighteenth­Century Europe i. Britain and Holland producing more food per acre and new crops  increased supply of food ii. Infectious disease continued to kill half of Europeans before age 20 iii. Northwestern Europe became increasingly urbanized; prosperity depended on developments in trade, manufacturing, and agriculture iv. Putting­out system led to more employment and higher levels of industrial production b. A World of Goods i. Mass market for consumer goods emerged in Europe; houses stocked with uncommon luxuries and prices rose and demand continued th ii. Almost everywhere in urban Europe, 18  century became the golden age  of the small shopkeeper; advertising became increasingly important iii. Resulted in a European economy more complex, specialized, integrated,  commercialized and productive than anything before H. Colonization and Trade in the Seventeenth Century a. Many staples products of Europe’s colonial empires in Asia, Africa, and  Americas; “Columbian exchange” b. Spanish Colonialism i. Spanish established colonial governments in Peru and Mexico and only  allowed Spanish merchants to trade with American colonies­ Spanish  economy dominated by mining ii. Spanish replaced existing elites with Spanish administrators and  churchmen; attempted to convert people to Catholicism iii. Result was widespread cultural assimilation between Spanish colonizers  and native population combined with relatively high degree of  intermarriage c. French Colonialism i. Matured under mercantilist finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert;  encouraged development of sugar­producing colonies in the West Indies ii. Colonies established and administered as direct crown enterprises d. English Colonialism i. No significant mineral wealth; sought profits by establishing agricultural  settlements in North America and Caribbean basin ii. Began as private ventures, either proprietary or joint­stock companies iii. Wanted complete and exclusive control over native lands; set out to  eliminate indigenous peoples of their colonies­ intermarriage was rare e. Dutch Colonialism i. Generally followed the “fort and factory” model established by Portuguese in Asia; established Dutch monopoly within Europe over different spices ii. Pioneered new financial mechanisms for investing in colonial enterprises f. Colonial Rivalries i. Fortunes of empires changed dramatically in the course of the seventeenth  and early eighteenth centuries; Spain unable to defend early monopoly  over colonial trade, Portugal found impossible to prevent foreign  penetration of colonial empire ii. Treaty of Urecht opened new era of colonial rivalries where biggest losers  were Dutch and winners were British I. The Triangular Trade in Sugar and Slaves a. European colonial trade came to be dominated by trans­Atlantic routes b. New England>Africa (rum traded for slaves)>Jamaica/Barbados (slaves traded  for molasses>New England (molasses made to rum) c. England>Africa (cheap manufactured goods for slaves)>Virginia (exchanged for  tobacco)>England d. Cultivation of New World sugar and tobacco depended on slave labor e. The Commercial Rivalry between Britain and France i. British dominance of slave trade gave decisive advantages in colonial  struggles with France ii. Growing value of colonial commerce tied interests of governments and  transoceanic merchants together in tight embrace f. War and Empire in the Eighteenth­Century World i. Peace shattered in Western Europe when Frederick the Great of Prussia  took advantage of accession of woman to seize Austrian province of  Silesia ii. Prussia attacked by Austria but allied itself with Great Britain; Austria  found support from France and Russia; Seven Years’ War ended in  stalemate g. The American Revolution i. Rapidly growing British colonies on Atlantic seaboard beginning to chafe  at rule from London; British tried to tax colonies to recover from Seven  Years’ War, which were immediately unpopular ii. Boston harbor­tea dumping, Coercive Acts; Continental Congress began  raising an army and outright rebellion erupted against British government iii. July 4, 1776­ colonies formally declared independence from Great Britain; French joined the side of Americans which helped them to win; British  army surrendered at Yorktown J. Conclusion a. War of Independence final military conflict between Great Britain and France for  colonial dominance b. Great Britain remain most important trading partner for American colonies c. Prosperity of late 18  century Europe remained very unevenly distributed;  political change more gradual


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.