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Chapter 5-7 Notes

by: Jennifer Notetaker

Chapter 5-7 Notes PSYC-1000-02

Jennifer Notetaker
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These notes cover our class notes from 10/3
Introductory Psych
Hebert, Thomas
Class Notes




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-02 at Tulane University taught by Hebert, Thomas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span   Developmental Psych’s Major Issues o 1. Nature & nurture o 2. Continuity & stages  o 3. Stability & change  Ex: yearbook photos & wide smiling = most likely to have enduring marriages  (divorce   Prenatal development and the Newborn o Conception  Sperm & egg unite to bring genetic material together & form one organism­ the  zygote (the fertilized cell) o Prenatal development  The zygote­ from conception to implantation (10 days­2 weeks)  The embryo­ weeks 3­8 (most vulnerable stage)  Organogenesis (creation of organs) is complete by 8 weeks after  conception  The fetus­ week 9­birth  Fetal life: The Dangers o Teratogens­ substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing  embryo or fetus o Alcohol  Fetal alcohol syndrome o Smoking o Other drugs o Illnesses o STDs  Inborn Skills: the competent newborn o Reflexes are responses and do not have to be learned   The rooting reflex (babies turn toward something touching their cheek)  The sucking reflex (breastfeeding)  Crying (their only way to communicate needs)  Adults don’t like to hear babies cry (alerts, bothers caregivers)  Habituation­ gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember   Decreasing responsiveness to repeated stimuli  Not noticing the sounds of airplanes when you move near an airport   Babies (newborns, even one hour old) have a built­in preference for faces  Have a fully­developed sense of smell & taste (all senses but sight)   A one­week nursing infant can distinguish his mother’s smell from that  of another woman  Infancy & childhood o In developmental psych, maturation refers to biologically­driven growth and  development enabling orderly, sequential changes in behavior  The sequence of motor development is universal  Sitting unsupported, crawling, beginning to walk, and walking  The developing brain overproduces neurons  Beginning at birth, the connections among neurons proliferate  A pruning process eliminates unused connections and strengthens others   Cognitive development o Cognition refers to the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating (memory, intelligence, reasoning, etc. )  Jean Piaget (1896­1980) o Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory  Children are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences  Children grow by maturation as well as by learning through interacting/playing  with the environment   Ex: children are unable to understand scale/relative size o Came up with the Stage Theory of cognitive development (don’t learn all the stages) o He felt that kids in the sensorimotor stage did not think abstractly   Yet there is evidence that babies notice it is wrong for objects to float o Physical development is slow, but cognitive development is rapid  Maturing beyond egocentrism: developing a “theory of mind” o Theory of mind­ refers to the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts  and perspective  Ex: Sally and Anne ball and cupboard example  Autism spectrum disorders o Children with autism spectrum have difficulties in:   Establishing mutual social interaction  Using language and play symbolically  Displaying flexibility with routines, interests, and behavior  They have more difficulty than a typical child in mentally mirroring the thoughts  and actions of others (helps us to relate)  Social development: attachment o Attachment refers to an emotional tie to another person o Origins of attachment: experiments with monkeys suggest that attachment is based on  physical affection and comfortable body contact, and not based on being rewarded with  food  o (infants need a lot of physical contact­ it is needed for good physical growth) o Sensitive (aware of what the baby needs), responsive (every time, immediately)  caregiving promotes secure attachment (basic trust and secure attachment may affect our  later relationships)  Influences on separation anxiety o Peaks and fades whether kids are at home or in daycare  Childhood: parenting styles o 3 styles (book) o Style o Response to child’s behavior o Authoritarian “too hard” o Parents impose “because I said so” rules and  expect obedience (not loving, not nurturing) o Permissive “too soft” o (loving, and nurturing) o Authoritative “just right” “warm control” o (disciplined and structured, but loving and  nurturing as well)  Adolescence   The transition period from childhood to adulthood o Brain development  During puberty, the brain stops automatically adding new connections, and  becomes more efficient by “rewiring”  Pruning  Strengthens the connections needed   Coating the well­used connections in myelin (think faster, more  efficiently, better connections b/w diff parts of the brain)  Frontal lobes are last to rewire  The emotional limbic system gets wired for puberty before the frontal  judgment centers of the brain get wired for adulthood  Mid­20s is when they finish developing. Adolescents have trouble with  impulse control, judgment, etc and have risky behavior.   Adolescents may understand risks and consequences, but give more  weight to potential thrills and rewards  Adolescence: parent and peer relationships o During adolescence, peer relationships take center stage (NOT hormones) o Adolescents often still see their parents as their primary influence in many areas, incl  career, religion, and politics o Most p[aren’t­adolescent conflict is over minor daily life issues (ex: cleaning room) o The attachment relationship is changed but still needed  Well­being/happiness/life satisfaction o Not a function of age  o Genetic­ optimism, your attitude o Why do people claim to be happy even as their body declines?  Older people attend less to negative info and more to positive info  More likely to have accumulated positive memories, which last longer than  mildly negative memories  Feel an increases sense of competence and control, and have greater stability in  mood  Chapter 7: Learning o Learning is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information/behaviors  Classical conditioning­ learning that two stimuli occur together (lightning and thunder) o After repetition:  o Stimulus: see lightning o Response: cover ears to avoid sound  Operant conditioning o Learning that a behavior goes with a consequence  Ex: being polite to get a cookie  Cognitive learning o Acquiring new behaviors and info mentally,l rather than by direct experience o Occurs by  1. Observing events and the behavior of others (watching a kid say “may I have a cookie please?”/bullying others to become more liked)  2. By using language to acquire info about events experiences by others (learning in a classroom)  Behaviorism o The term behaviorism was used by John B Watson, a proponent of classical conditioning, as well as B.F. Skinner, a leader in research about operant conditioning o Both scientist believed that mental life was much less important than behavior as a  foundation for psych science  Ivan Pavlov’s discovery o While studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli, such as:  Just seeing the food  Seeing the dish  Seeing the person who brought the food  Just hearing that person’s footsteps o Neutral stimulus­ a stimulus which does not trigger a response (ex: ring a bell, no  response) o Unconditioned stimulus and response­ a response which triggers a response naturally,  before/without any conditioning (ex: a dog’s salivation to dog food) (US: yummy dog  food) o During conditioning: the bell (NS) is repeatedly presented with the food (US)  Bell + food = salivation o After conditioning­ the dog begins to salivate upon hearing the tone (neutral tone  becomes conditioned stimulus) o UR and CR are the same response, triggered by different events (conditioning was  necessary for the response to happen) o The NS and CS are the same thing; the difference is whether is triggers the conditioned  response  Ex: your SO uses the same shampoo & now it makes you happy o Acquisition­ refers to the initial stage of learning/conditioning  Salivation is now triggered by the bell o Timing  For association to be acquired, the NS needs to repeatedly occur BEFORE the  unconditioned stimulus, about a half­second before, in most cases. The bell must  come right before the food.  o Extinction  The diminishing of a conditioned response.   If food stops appearing with the bell, the conditioned response decreases o Generalization and discrimination o Ivan Pavlov conditioned them to drool when rubbed/scratched  Generalization­ the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related  stimuli  MORE stuff makes you drool  Ex: baby shakes with fear at doctor’s offices o He conditioned them to drool at bells of a different pitch­ slightly diff pitches didn’t  trigger drooling  Discrimination­ the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimulus,  preventing generalization  LESS stuff makes you drool  Ex: a child is only scared of the bearded man who abused him  Ivan Pavlov’s Legacy o Insights about conditioning in general  It occurs in all creatures  Related to biological drives and responses o Insights about science  Learning can be learned objectively, by quantifying actions and isolating  elements of behavior o Insights from specific applications  Substance abuse involves conditioned triggers, and these triggers can be  avoided/associated with new   John B Watson and Classical Conditioning: playing with fear o In 1920, 9­month old Little Albert was not afraid of rats o John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was  presented to Albert o Albert acquired a fear of rats, and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things  (other white, fluffy things)  US­ loud hammering sound o Watson prided himself in his ability to shape people’s emotions & later went into  advertising  He was only nurture­based  How we acquire some fears; some babies are tempermentally influenced  Operant conditioning o Adjusting our behaviors to consequences, so we can easily learn to do more of what  works and less of what doesn’t work  Ex: smiling at work = bigger tips o An act of chosen behavior (response) is followed by a reward punitive feedback from the  environment  How to train an animal o Results:  Reinforced behavior is more likely to be tried again  Punished behavior is less likely to be tried again  Thorndike’s Law of Effect o His puzzle box­ cats were rewarded w food if they solved the puzzle. The cats took less  time to escape after repeated trials (one lever opens the door) o The law of effect: behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely,  and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely  B. F. Skinner o B F Skinner extended Thorndike’s principles o Like Pavlov, he pioneered controlled methods of studying conditioning o The operant chamber “Skinner box” allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement  Mice will eventually reach the lever to make food come out  He got mice to do things simply by adjusting consequences  Reinforcement o Refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to recur  Positive reinforcement­ adding something desirable (warmth)  Negative reinforcement (taking away)­ ending something unpleasant (the cold)  Shaping Behavior o When a creature isn’t likely to perform exactly the behavior you’re trying to teach, you  can reward any behavior that comes close to the desired behavior  (baby steps to conditioning)  Ex: rewarding a dolphin with fish for slowly reaching the goal  Discrimination o Refers to the ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a  response o Dogs, eats, and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells, from drugs  to explosives (ex: bomb finding rats, manatee that selects shapes)  How often should we reward? o Do we need to reward every time o B. F. Skinner experimented w the effects of giving reinforcements in diff patterns or  “schedules” to determine what worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior o Continuous reinforcement­ giving a reward every time (the subject acquires the desired  behavior quickly) o Partial/intermittent reinforcement­ giving rewards part of the time (the target behavior  takes longer to be established/acquired but persists longer without reward)  Ex: gambling or child wanting candy  Operant effect: Punishment o Consequences that make the target behavior less likely o Positive punishment­ add something unpleasant/aversive (spanking) o Negative punishment­ you take something pleasant/desired away (no TV time/attention)  When is punishment effective? o Punishment works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate  consequences (ex: reaching into a fire) o Does not work with animals o Less well when the only encounter in a distant, delayed, possible threat (you’ll be in  trouble when your father gets home in 8 hours) o Severity of punishments is NOT as helpful as making the punishments IMMEDIATE and CERTAIN  Problems with physical punishment o 1. Punished behaviors may restart when the punishment is over (different setting) o 2. Instead of learning behaviors, the child may learn to discriminate among situations,   and avoid those in which punishment might occur o 3. Punishment can teach fear o 4. Physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems  o Problem: punishment focuses on what NOT to do, which doesn’t guide people to a  desired behavior  Even if undesirable behaviors do stop, another problem behavior may emerge  that serves the same purpose, esp f no replacement behaviors are taught and  reinforced o Reinforcement is more effective­ in order to teach desired behavior, reinforce what’s  right more often than punishing what’s wrong  Applications of operant conditioning o School & parenting: rewarding small improvements toward desired behaviors works  better than expecting complete success, and also works better than punishing problem  behaviors o Sports: athletes improve most in the shaping approach in which they are reinforced for  performance that comes closer and closer to the target skill (ex: hitting pitches that are  progressively faster) o Work: some companies pay a function of performance or company profit rather than  seniority; they target more specific behaviors to reinforce  Self­improvement (reward yourself)  1. State a realistic goal in measurable terms  2. Decide how/when/where you will work toward the goal  3.Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior  4. Reinforce the desired behavior  5. Reduce the rewards gradually  The role of biology in conditioning o Biological constraints on conditioning  Behaviorists were nurture­only  An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology  Can a monkey be trained to peck with its nose? No, but a pigeon can   You can’t train a pigeon to flap its wings to get a reward because wing­flapping  is associated with threats/danger o Classical conditioning  John Garcia and others found it easier to learn associations that make sense for  survival  Food aversions can be acquired even if the UR (nausea) does NOT immediately  follow the NS (even several hours later) (the association can last for months)  Males in one study were more likely to see a pictured woman as attractive if the  picture had a red border (female primates display red when nearing ovulation)  Cognitive processes o In classical conditioning  When the dog salivates at the bell, it may be due to cognition (learning to predict, even expect, the food)  Knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of  mentally breaking the association   Ex: deciding that nausea associated w a food aversion was actually  caused by an illness o In operant conditioning  In fixed­interval reinforcement, animals do more target behaviors around the  time that the reward is more likely, as if expecting the reward  Humans can respond to delayed reinforcers such as a paycheck  Humans can set behavioral goals for self and others, and plan their own  reinforcers  In conditioning, biology and cognition matter  Learning, rewards, and motivation o motivation­ the inclination to do something o Intrinsic motivation­ the desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake o Extrinsic motivation­ doing a behavior to receive rewards  o Intrinsic motivation can sometimes be reduced by external rewards, and can be  prevented by continuous reinforcement o One principle for maintaining behavior is to use as few rewards as possible, and fade the  rewards over time o Ex: sports players who eventually get paid to play the sport have changes in motivational  processes   Learning by observation o Can we learn new behaviors and skills without a direct experience of conditioning? o Observational learning­ watching what happens when other people do a behavior and  learning from their experience o Modeling­ the behaviors of others serves as a model, an example of how to responf to a  situation; we may try this model regardless of reinforcement o Vicarious conditioning­ vicarious reinforcement and punishment means our choices are  affected as we see others get consequences for their behaviors  Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment (1961) o Kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors such  as “kick him” o These kids were then put in a toy­deprived situation and acted out the same behaviors  they had seen (direct imitation)


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