Chapter 5-7 Notes
Chapter 5-7 Notes PSYC-1000-02
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-02 at Tulane University taught by Hebert, Thomas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span Developmental Psych’s Major Issues o 1. Nature & nurture o 2. Continuity & stages o 3. Stability & change Ex: yearbook photos & wide smiling = most likely to have enduring marriages (divorce Prenatal development and the Newborn o Conception Sperm & egg unite to bring genetic material together & form one organism the zygote (the fertilized cell) o Prenatal development The zygote from conception to implantation (10 days2 weeks) The embryo weeks 38 (most vulnerable stage) Organogenesis (creation of organs) is complete by 8 weeks after conception The fetus week 9birth Fetal life: The Dangers o Teratogens substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo or fetus o Alcohol Fetal alcohol syndrome o Smoking o Other drugs o Illnesses o STDs Inborn Skills: the competent newborn o Reflexes are responses and do not have to be learned The rooting reflex (babies turn toward something touching their cheek) The sucking reflex (breastfeeding) Crying (their only way to communicate needs) Adults don’t like to hear babies cry (alerts, bothers caregivers) Habituation gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember Decreasing responsiveness to repeated stimuli Not noticing the sounds of airplanes when you move near an airport Babies (newborns, even one hour old) have a builtin preference for faces Have a fullydeveloped sense of smell & taste (all senses but sight) A oneweek nursing infant can distinguish his mother’s smell from that of another woman Infancy & childhood o In developmental psych, maturation refers to biologicallydriven growth and development enabling orderly, sequential changes in behavior The sequence of motor development is universal Sitting unsupported, crawling, beginning to walk, and walking The developing brain overproduces neurons Beginning at birth, the connections among neurons proliferate A pruning process eliminates unused connections and strengthens others Cognitive development o Cognition refers to the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating (memory, intelligence, reasoning, etc. ) Jean Piaget (18961980) o Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Children are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences Children grow by maturation as well as by learning through interacting/playing with the environment Ex: children are unable to understand scale/relative size o Came up with the Stage Theory of cognitive development (don’t learn all the stages) o He felt that kids in the sensorimotor stage did not think abstractly Yet there is evidence that babies notice it is wrong for objects to float o Physical development is slow, but cognitive development is rapid Maturing beyond egocentrism: developing a “theory of mind” o Theory of mind refers to the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts and perspective Ex: Sally and Anne ball and cupboard example Autism spectrum disorders o Children with autism spectrum have difficulties in: Establishing mutual social interaction Using language and play symbolically Displaying flexibility with routines, interests, and behavior They have more difficulty than a typical child in mentally mirroring the thoughts and actions of others (helps us to relate) Social development: attachment o Attachment refers to an emotional tie to another person o Origins of attachment: experiments with monkeys suggest that attachment is based on physical affection and comfortable body contact, and not based on being rewarded with food o (infants need a lot of physical contact it is needed for good physical growth) o Sensitive (aware of what the baby needs), responsive (every time, immediately) caregiving promotes secure attachment (basic trust and secure attachment may affect our later relationships) Influences on separation anxiety o Peaks and fades whether kids are at home or in daycare Childhood: parenting styles o 3 styles (book) o Style o Response to child’s behavior o Authoritarian “too hard” o Parents impose “because I said so” rules and expect obedience (not loving, not nurturing) o Permissive “too soft” o (loving, and nurturing) o Authoritative “just right” “warm control” o (disciplined and structured, but loving and nurturing as well) Adolescence The transition period from childhood to adulthood o Brain development During puberty, the brain stops automatically adding new connections, and becomes more efficient by “rewiring” Pruning Strengthens the connections needed Coating the wellused connections in myelin (think faster, more efficiently, better connections b/w diff parts of the brain) Frontal lobes are last to rewire The emotional limbic system gets wired for puberty before the frontal judgment centers of the brain get wired for adulthood Mid20s is when they finish developing. Adolescents have trouble with impulse control, judgment, etc and have risky behavior. Adolescents may understand risks and consequences, but give more weight to potential thrills and rewards Adolescence: parent and peer relationships o During adolescence, peer relationships take center stage (NOT hormones) o Adolescents often still see their parents as their primary influence in many areas, incl career, religion, and politics o Most p[aren’tadolescent conflict is over minor daily life issues (ex: cleaning room) o The attachment relationship is changed but still needed Wellbeing/happiness/life satisfaction o Not a function of age o Genetic optimism, your attitude o Why do people claim to be happy even as their body declines? Older people attend less to negative info and more to positive info More likely to have accumulated positive memories, which last longer than mildly negative memories Feel an increases sense of competence and control, and have greater stability in mood Chapter 7: Learning o Learning is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information/behaviors Classical conditioning learning that two stimuli occur together (lightning and thunder) o After repetition: o Stimulus: see lightning o Response: cover ears to avoid sound Operant conditioning o Learning that a behavior goes with a consequence Ex: being polite to get a cookie Cognitive learning o Acquiring new behaviors and info mentally,l rather than by direct experience o Occurs by 1. Observing events and the behavior of others (watching a kid say “may I have a cookie please?”/bullying others to become more liked) 2. By using language to acquire info about events experiences by others (learning in a classroom) Behaviorism o The term behaviorism was used by John B Watson, a proponent of classical conditioning, as well as B.F. Skinner, a leader in research about operant conditioning o Both scientist believed that mental life was much less important than behavior as a foundation for psych science Ivan Pavlov’s discovery o While studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli, such as: Just seeing the food Seeing the dish Seeing the person who brought the food Just hearing that person’s footsteps o Neutral stimulus a stimulus which does not trigger a response (ex: ring a bell, no response) o Unconditioned stimulus and response a response which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning (ex: a dog’s salivation to dog food) (US: yummy dog food) o During conditioning: the bell (NS) is repeatedly presented with the food (US) Bell + food = salivation o After conditioning the dog begins to salivate upon hearing the tone (neutral tone becomes conditioned stimulus) o UR and CR are the same response, triggered by different events (conditioning was necessary for the response to happen) o The NS and CS are the same thing; the difference is whether is triggers the conditioned response Ex: your SO uses the same shampoo & now it makes you happy o Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning/conditioning Salivation is now triggered by the bell o Timing For association to be acquired, the NS needs to repeatedly occur BEFORE the unconditioned stimulus, about a halfsecond before, in most cases. The bell must come right before the food. o Extinction The diminishing of a conditioned response. If food stops appearing with the bell, the conditioned response decreases o Generalization and discrimination o Ivan Pavlov conditioned them to drool when rubbed/scratched Generalization the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli MORE stuff makes you drool Ex: baby shakes with fear at doctor’s offices o He conditioned them to drool at bells of a different pitch slightly diff pitches didn’t trigger drooling Discrimination the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimulus, preventing generalization LESS stuff makes you drool Ex: a child is only scared of the bearded man who abused him Ivan Pavlov’s Legacy o Insights about conditioning in general It occurs in all creatures Related to biological drives and responses o Insights about science Learning can be learned objectively, by quantifying actions and isolating elements of behavior o Insights from specific applications Substance abuse involves conditioned triggers, and these triggers can be avoided/associated with new John B Watson and Classical Conditioning: playing with fear o In 1920, 9month old Little Albert was not afraid of rats o John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to Albert o Albert acquired a fear of rats, and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things (other white, fluffy things) US loud hammering sound o Watson prided himself in his ability to shape people’s emotions & later went into advertising He was only nurturebased How we acquire some fears; some babies are tempermentally influenced Operant conditioning o Adjusting our behaviors to consequences, so we can easily learn to do more of what works and less of what doesn’t work Ex: smiling at work = bigger tips o An act of chosen behavior (response) is followed by a reward punitive feedback from the environment How to train an animal o Results: Reinforced behavior is more likely to be tried again Punished behavior is less likely to be tried again Thorndike’s Law of Effect o His puzzle box cats were rewarded w food if they solved the puzzle. The cats took less time to escape after repeated trials (one lever opens the door) o The law of effect: behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely B. F. Skinner o B F Skinner extended Thorndike’s principles o Like Pavlov, he pioneered controlled methods of studying conditioning o The operant chamber “Skinner box” allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement Mice will eventually reach the lever to make food come out He got mice to do things simply by adjusting consequences Reinforcement o Refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to recur Positive reinforcement adding something desirable (warmth) Negative reinforcement (taking away) ending something unpleasant (the cold) Shaping Behavior o When a creature isn’t likely to perform exactly the behavior you’re trying to teach, you can reward any behavior that comes close to the desired behavior (baby steps to conditioning) Ex: rewarding a dolphin with fish for slowly reaching the goal Discrimination o Refers to the ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response o Dogs, eats, and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells, from drugs to explosives (ex: bomb finding rats, manatee that selects shapes) How often should we reward? o Do we need to reward every time o B. F. Skinner experimented w the effects of giving reinforcements in diff patterns or “schedules” to determine what worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior o Continuous reinforcement giving a reward every time (the subject acquires the desired behavior quickly) o Partial/intermittent reinforcement giving rewards part of the time (the target behavior takes longer to be established/acquired but persists longer without reward) Ex: gambling or child wanting candy Operant effect: Punishment o Consequences that make the target behavior less likely o Positive punishment add something unpleasant/aversive (spanking) o Negative punishment you take something pleasant/desired away (no TV time/attention) When is punishment effective? o Punishment works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate consequences (ex: reaching into a fire) o Does not work with animals o Less well when the only encounter in a distant, delayed, possible threat (you’ll be in trouble when your father gets home in 8 hours) o Severity of punishments is NOT as helpful as making the punishments IMMEDIATE and CERTAIN Problems with physical punishment o 1. Punished behaviors may restart when the punishment is over (different setting) o 2. Instead of learning behaviors, the child may learn to discriminate among situations, and avoid those in which punishment might occur o 3. Punishment can teach fear o 4. Physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems o Problem: punishment focuses on what NOT to do, which doesn’t guide people to a desired behavior Even if undesirable behaviors do stop, another problem behavior may emerge that serves the same purpose, esp f no replacement behaviors are taught and reinforced o Reinforcement is more effective in order to teach desired behavior, reinforce what’s right more often than punishing what’s wrong Applications of operant conditioning o School & parenting: rewarding small improvements toward desired behaviors works better than expecting complete success, and also works better than punishing problem behaviors o Sports: athletes improve most in the shaping approach in which they are reinforced for performance that comes closer and closer to the target skill (ex: hitting pitches that are progressively faster) o Work: some companies pay a function of performance or company profit rather than seniority; they target more specific behaviors to reinforce Selfimprovement (reward yourself) 1. State a realistic goal in measurable terms 2. Decide how/when/where you will work toward the goal 3.Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior 4. Reinforce the desired behavior 5. Reduce the rewards gradually The role of biology in conditioning o Biological constraints on conditioning Behaviorists were nurtureonly An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology Can a monkey be trained to peck with its nose? No, but a pigeon can You can’t train a pigeon to flap its wings to get a reward because wingflapping is associated with threats/danger o Classical conditioning John Garcia and others found it easier to learn associations that make sense for survival Food aversions can be acquired even if the UR (nausea) does NOT immediately follow the NS (even several hours later) (the association can last for months) Males in one study were more likely to see a pictured woman as attractive if the picture had a red border (female primates display red when nearing ovulation) Cognitive processes o In classical conditioning When the dog salivates at the bell, it may be due to cognition (learning to predict, even expect, the food) Knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally breaking the association Ex: deciding that nausea associated w a food aversion was actually caused by an illness o In operant conditioning In fixedinterval reinforcement, animals do more target behaviors around the time that the reward is more likely, as if expecting the reward Humans can respond to delayed reinforcers such as a paycheck Humans can set behavioral goals for self and others, and plan their own reinforcers In conditioning, biology and cognition matter Learning, rewards, and motivation o motivation the inclination to do something o Intrinsic motivation the desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake o Extrinsic motivation doing a behavior to receive rewards o Intrinsic motivation can sometimes be reduced by external rewards, and can be prevented by continuous reinforcement o One principle for maintaining behavior is to use as few rewards as possible, and fade the rewards over time o Ex: sports players who eventually get paid to play the sport have changes in motivational processes Learning by observation o Can we learn new behaviors and skills without a direct experience of conditioning? o Observational learning watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experience o Modeling the behaviors of others serves as a model, an example of how to responf to a situation; we may try this model regardless of reinforcement o Vicarious conditioning vicarious reinforcement and punishment means our choices are affected as we see others get consequences for their behaviors Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment (1961) o Kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors such as “kick him” o These kids were then put in a toydeprived situation and acted out the same behaviors they had seen (direct imitation)
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