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Lec 9 Bio 308

by: Kiara Reyes

Lec 9 Bio 308 Bios 308

Kiara Reyes
GPA 2.9

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Hello Everyone, here are Lecture 9 notes, they are color coded to make it easier to remember. Red- Important Info/Vocabs Green- Examples Purple-Keep in mind Blue-Side notes Hope these notes help you
Yanbin Yin
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bios 308 at Northern Illinois University taught by Yanbin Yin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Lecture 9: Chromosome Variations Type of Chromosome  Metacentric: centromere in the middle, with arms of equal length  Telocentric: centromere at one end, with only 1 arm  Acrocentric: centromere near one end, with arms of very different lengths  Sub-metacentric: centromere near the middle, with arms of slightly different lengths “Variations in Chromosomes Number”  “-poldy”: number of haploid chromosomes sets Ex] Haploid= 1 set, Diploid= 2 sets, Triploid= 3 sets  “-somy”: individual chromosomes Ex] Trisomy= 3 copies of chromosomes, Monosomy= 1 copy of chromosomes Aneuploidy  Euploid: equal number of each chromosomes  Abnormal Euploid: different number of chromosomes set  Aneuploid: having extra chromosomes (trisomic) or missing a chromosome (monosomic) is very bad; unbalanced not equal number “Triploids”  Triploids organisms are usually sterile, common way making seedless fruits  Found in metaphase and anaphase of meiosis 1. Homologues pair up in metaphase of M1, then pulled to opposite poles of anaphase  3 members to each set of homologous. Line up as triple metaphase and anaphase 1 homologous goes to upper pole and 1 to lower pole  Result has 1 copy of some chromosome and 2 copies of other chromosomes “Polyploids”  Polyploid: abnormal euploid conditions above dipole  Polyploidy arise in two ways: 1. Autopolyploid: 3 or more chromosomes sets from the same species -Generally results from a failure in meiosis, gives diploid sperm and egg cells 2. Allopolyploid: 3 or more chromosomes sets from different species -having chromosomes sets from two or more species closely related and needs to be some mechanisms for keeping the chromosomes from different species from pairing with each other “Aneuploid Organism”  Aneuploid (have an extra chromosome or a missing chromosome) is usually result of non-disjunction in meiosis. Non-disjunction is the failure of chromosome to go to opposite poles in meiosis Autosomal Aneuploidies  Down Syndrome (47, trisomy- 21) mentally disabled, with characteristic thick body and tongue, along with heart defects that used to kill most at early age  Patau Syndrome (trisomy-13) a.k.a cyclops, facial bones fail to close during fetal life  Mosaic- organism derived from a single fertilization but which containing cells with 2 or more different chromosome composition  Chimera-organism which composed of two genetically different organisms, which have fused together Chromosome Structure Variations  Causes and Problem -Chromosomes structure variation result from chromosomes breakage. Broken chromosomes tend to re-join, occurs at random and not necessarily with the correct ends -General problems with structural variations: 1. Breaking critical gens, destroys the gene and thus can result in mutant phenotype 2. Aneuploidy, usually meiosis  Types -Deletion: part of chromosome removed -Duplication: chromosome parts copied -Inversion: part of chromosome re-inserted reversed order -Ring: ends of chromosome joined together -Translocation: part of two non-homologous chromosome joined Unequal Crossing Over  Unequal crossing over happens during prophase of meiosis 1.  Homologous chromosome pair at this stage and sometimes pairing occurs between the similar but not identical copies of a tandem duplication “Inversion”  Inversion- segment chromosomes removed and replaced backwards  Cause problems in meiosis when they are heterozygous with a normal chromosomes -Some genes duplicated and other missing “Translation”  2 different, non-homologous chromosomes are broken and rejoined to each other. All genes are present, so individual with translocation can be completely normal  Problem occurs during the meiosis 1, result of confusion about how the chromosomes should be segregate to opposite poles  During prophase and metaphase of M1, homologous chromosomes attached together, pair up in cross-shaped configuration, so all the pieces have a partner  When anaphase occurs, 2 main possibilities exist: -Alternate Segregation: centromeres on opposite side of the cross go to the same pole -Adjacent Segregation: centromeres on the same side of the cross go to the same pole


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