Week 5 CRMJ 303
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luppino70 on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRMJ 303 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Jason Spraitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Ch. 4 Physical Environment Friday, September 30, 2016 4:34 PM Everything here is a combination of what came from the textbook and from class, but those things highlighted in green were talked about in class Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Using the layout of an area to keep crime from occurring. This emerged in the 70s from Oscar Newman at what he called defensible space, low rise public housing will have less crime than high rising public housing,. He looked to build a caring, interactive, and more informal control environment through the design of living and public space. Social Fabric Defensible Space: Physical traits of a territory can affect resident and possible offenders actions. Territoriality: The want and will of legitimate user of an area to claim said area. Defining public vs private space and showing possible restricted access Symbolic Territoriality: Signs and landscaping as examples to mark ones territory. Real Territoriality: A barrier in front of people to designate an area, they must get through another way. Fortressing: is making the home more defensible to keep people out. Too much can lead to seeing this as a target for a big score and more can lead to better cover to hide. Natural Surveillance: Residents observing what is around them without special measures Image: Design making the space to look invulnerable to crime. Prevention comes from the area being well maintained and clean, and extends to surrounding areas. Milieu: The placement of matters Other goals Access Control: Only those who have a quality reason and qualify may enter an area. Such as keeping only those with keys can get into the building, locking the car, etc. Target Hardening: Taking precautions to ensure less chance of victimization. Installing an alarm, signs. Alley Gating: Putting up gates in alleys to restrict access Surveillance: Any measure taken to increase the possibility of offenders to be watched Formal Surveillance: Guards or those paid for watching for crimes Mechanical Surveillance: Cameras to observe what is happening, Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Activity Support and Motivation Reinforcement Having events to bring in social interaction and increase territoriality. Measuring CPTED Direct effects Doing evaluations on how things like access control and surveillance has had an impact on crime Design on intervening factors Is there a fear of crime reduction? Is there a feeling of territoriality? More surveys and interviews performed. Lighting: giving a spot visibility to be observed. This can identify an offender, make certain places undesirable or more outside activity meaning more surveillance. Research has been all over. The only consistency comes from a reduction of the fear of crime Surveillance: Any measure taken to increase the possibility of offenders to be watched Refuge: Concealment either being available or not available. Hiding and protection of potential offenders Prospect: An individual having the mental capacity to observe a territory Escape: Ability for an offender to leave the space Second Generation CPTED: Incorporating social factors. Third Generation CPTED: Adding a green aspect to the mix Permeability: The ability to come in and out of a designated area OTREP: Opportunity to commit crimes come from Targeting, Risk, Effort, and Payoff Secured By Design: putting safety and security measures into new and old buildings Crime and Disorder Act (1998): Cooperate agencies but mostly for architects and city planners to design things so crime would be difficult to perform Operational Identification: Programs to make it very hard for people to take marked items Reducing Burglary Initiative (1999, England): Having a community to see what is causing burglaries in their area and countering them with target hardening or alley gating.
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