New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Test Upload

by: Elisha Ruth Nedamo

Test Upload EC 201

Elisha Ruth Nedamo

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Test Upload
Introduction to Microeconomics
J. Meyer
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Microeconomics

Popular in Social Science

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisha Ruth Nedamo on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EC 201 at Michigan State University taught by J. Meyer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Microeconomics in Social Science at Michigan State University.


Reviews for Test Upload


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/08/16
UK sustainable shower study 05/12/2011 A landmark study by Unilever UK and Ireland, which manufactures some of the UK’s leading personal care brands, including Radox and Dove, is the first to reveal what British families really get up to in the shower. A landmark study by Unilever UK and Ireland,which manufactures some of the UK’s leading personal care brands, including Radox and Dove,is the first to reveal what British families really get up to in the shower.The findings will enable scientists to help consumers to save energy, water and money. Using innovative new technology, developed at Unilever’s Port Sunlight R&D laboratory, researchers are now able to monitor actual showering behaviour, rather than relying on self­report which, until now, has been the only way of understanding consumers’ shower antics. The Sustainable Showering Study is the first ever to record accurate data on how we shower and provide a benchmark for the environmental and financial impact of this. The findings reveal: The shower vs. bath eco­myth:The average shower is eight minutes long and uses nearly as much energy and water as a bath. Showering costs the average UK family £416 a year Average power shower could cost families £918 per year: An eight minute power shower uses nearly twice as much energy and water as taking a bath Young boys are the worst offenders for lengthy showers: They spend an average of 10 minutes in the shower, washing away the notion that they can be a bit grubby Women are miles better multi­taskers than men; even in the shower Not all results are surprising: teenage girls really do monopolise the bathroom The study used an innovative Shower Sensor to monitor 2,600 showers taken by 100 families, over 10 days ­ totalling 1,000 days of research. The Sensors recorded when showers were being used and for how long. Throughout the study, participants also kept shower diaries to track who was showering and what they did. These shower diaries also gave Unilever scientists the opportunity to monitor the differences between actual and reported showering behaviour by running a separate self­report survey. The study provides a unique insight into what Brits get up to behind closed bathroom doors and reveals the impact our behaviour has on our pockets and the planet. It supports Unilever’s commitment to growing its business while reducing its carbon footprint, as set out in the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan, which was introduced last year. Unilever scientists will use the insights to design new products and other solutions to help consumers save money by conserving energy and water. Dr Hilde Hendrickx, a behavioural psychologist at Unilever UK and Ireland, said: “Around 95% of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with our shampoos, soaps and shower gels come from people using hot water, especially for showers. At Unilever, we know we have a responsibility across the entire lifecycle of our products, not just in our factories but when people enjoy them at home as well. To reduce the environmental impact of product use at home we need to better understand how people use their showers. But this is a challenge as we obviously can’t watch them and we know that self­reported behaviour is often not very accurate. So we’ve developed new technology that enables us to do this. “This study will help us start to understand what the catalysts are for changing people’s behaviour in order to reduce the amount of energy and water they use during showering. It will also enable us to shape new products and other solutions to deliver savings in energy, water and money, both for us and our customers. This sort of work is vital if we are to grow our business while reducing our environmental footprint.” Shower vs. bath: can you spot the difference? While previously people have talked about the five minute shower, The Sustainable Showering Study reveals the real figure is much higher with the average shower duration at eight minutes. An eight minute shower with an average water flow rate uses around 62 litres of hot water (compared to 80 litres for a bath) and costs around 30p. That’s a total of 90,000 litres per year for the average four­person family, at a collective cost of £416. £1,000 cost of power showers could be wake-up call for Brits The financial and environmental impact of taking an eight minute power shower is even greater: it can use up to 136 litres of hot water per shower, which is equivalent to nearly two baths, and costs around 63p per shower. That’s a total of nearly 200,000 litres of hot water per year for a typical family at an average cost of around £918. The findings bust the eco­myth that showers are always better for the environment than baths. In fact, the fastest flow shower recorded by the study, used as much water as a bath in just 4 minutes 42 seconds (17 litres per minute). Young boys are the worst offenders for lengthy showers Young boys are the worst offenders for taking very lengthy showers, according to the study, helping to wash away the notion that they can be a bit grubby. Boys aged 12 years and under actually spend longer than anyone else in the shower, at around 10 minutes on average. The longest was a whopping 30 minutes, despite the fact that the boy only washed his hair and body in that time. Women are the best multi-taskers, even in the shower The study suggests that women are very effective multi­taskers, even when they’re in the shower. It reveals that while women and men spend a similar amount of time scrubbing up, women are busy undertaking multiple activities in the shower, such as hair washing, shaving, and cleaning their teeth while men just seem to enjoy the experience. Teenage girls really do monopolise the bathroom However, not all of the findings will come as a surprise. The study revealed that young girls aged 12 and under take short showers of around six and a half minutes. But when they hit their teens they start to spend one and a half times as long in the bathroom. The average teenage girl takes nearly nine and a half minutes in the shower, costing her parents around £123 a year. Unilever has a successful track record of using factually based behavioural insights to reduce its carbon emissions. In its research into laundry trends, a study observed that people consistently used more washing detergent than they needed. It identified an opportunity to reduce product packaging by creating concentrated detergents with smaller caps, making it easier for people to use the correct amount. The result was less plastic packaging used, fewer lorries needed to transport the bottles and reduced product wastage. UK & Ireland Corporate press enquiries For Unilever UK & Ireland corporate press enquiries, please contact the UK press office on the number or email below: T: UK +44 (0)01372 945925  F: UK +44 07785 450287 ( Unilever UK © Unilever 2016


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.