Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes PLSC 2013
Popular in Intro to Comparative Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Herenton on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLSC 2013 at University of Arkansas taught by Jeffrey Ryan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 6-‐Non-‐Democratic Regimes v Defining Nondemocratic Rule Ø Nondemocratic governments include numerous political systems and ideologies. § Nondemocratic rule is broadly de scribed as authoritarianism, or any political system in which a small group exercises power and is not formally accountable to the public. § Nondemocratic rule also refers to a state in which citizens play a minimal role in selecting governmental leadership. Ø Nondemocratic states are maintained by restricting individual freedom. § Freedoms of speech, assembly, and others allow citizens to challenge the decisions of a government . Ø Some nondemocratic states may attempt to promote economic equality. § Some autocratic governments primarily exploit state resources while others actively attempt to promote economic equality. (Ex. Communist systems) v Sources of nondemocratic rule Ø Like democracies, non-‐democracies can emerge from a variety of conditions or societies. § There is no single factor that completely explains nondemocratic development. Ø A lack of modernization can prevent state from developing a democratic system. • Typically most of the wealth is distributed by the top few § States that are economically under-‐developed are less likely to develop democratic systems. • Takes resources to effectively challenge the government • Difficult to grow middle class § Under-‐development prohibits the growth of a middle-‐class, which is usually a key feature in a democracy. • Middle class has disposable income • You can develop an opinion of what government does with your money. • Citizens expressing opinions/values to collectively change government Ø Modernization can also lead to authoritarian rule. § Turbulence from economic reorganization can destabilize social and political institutions and give rise to a government that promises to a government that promises to “restore order” . v Elites in nondemocratic states Ø Such rulers may become increasingly authocratic in order to protect their economic advantages. § Suppression of political dissent may become increasingly violent in order to prevent violent reprisals for current or previous repressions. § Under these conditions, a government may be reduced to an instrument that allows elites to enrich themselves. Ø Modernization may lead to an uneven distribution of wealth . § In countries that feature high levels of income inequality, it is very likely that the same groups who dominate the economy will also dominate the state. § These elites will be less likely to share powers if it threatens economic opportunities. Ø A state may inadvertently develop in this manner if it becomes caught in a resource trap. v Resource traps Ø A resource trap is a development theory that suggest s government access to natural r esources may prevent democratization. • Only applies if you ’re dealing with a non democratic party ahead of time § Wealth generated by resources allow s leaders to finance state activities without resorting to taxation . Ø Without taxation, governments are able t o ignore the political demands of citizens. • No money = no say § Citizens may also feel that they have no right to criticize the government. Ø Over-‐reliance on resources may also stunt development in other economic sectors. v Civil Society in nondemocratic states Ø Recall: Civil society enables citizens to organize and express preference in a formal system that can cross cultural or economic lines. § This generally serves as a foundation for democratic rule . Ø Civil societies tend to be absent in nondemocratic states, or are controlled by the government. § _____________ are also less likely to develop a civil society. § Governments may oversee civil society institutions in order to develop a civil society . They may also prevent it from developing entirely. Ø In some instances, civil society can obstruct democratic development if it encourages the use of violence to achieve a goal. § Organizations with anti -‐democratic tendencies may utilize this cohesion as a way to advance a violent agenda. (Ex. Ethnic cleansing) v Nondemocratic regimes and political control Ø What allows authoritarian states to remain in power? § There is no single type of authoritarian system. Some are based on political repression, but other systems generate their own type of legitimacy . Ø Some autocratic states hold power through violence. § In these states, governments utilize violence as a means of reprisal (protest) for political dissent and as a means of intimidation to the rest of the population . (Ex. Stalin’s purges-‐ wipes out anyone who goes against him or he doesn’t like; sending a message to be careful what you say and how to talk to/about public leaders) § Widespread violence also contributes to the suppression of civil society and freedoms of expression : a public can be controlled if everyone fears government reprisals. • Have to be careful with violence -‐ killing a bunch of your people often can make national attention and ultimately create problems at home Ø Widespread surveillance also allows a state to exert control over its citizens. § Surveillance also limits the likelihood of dissent, as citizens are never sure if they’re being watched . § With the rise of the internet , surveillance has become easier. v Co-‐Optation Ø Nondemocratic regimes may not rely on violence to maintain authority. § Some states attempt to connect potential dissenters to the state through a beneficial relationship. § This makes such individuals dependent on the government for rewards and delegitimizes them to other dissenters. Ø Such actions can generate legitimacy for the government . § Provision of benefits (and limited participation) may generate legal-‐rational legitimacy. • Won’t generate questions of the government’s authority v Corporatism and Clientelism Ø Corporatism refers to practice by which autocratic governments solidify their rule by creating or sanctioning a limited number of organizations that represent public interest . (Ex. Stat-‐run Labor Union) § Such organizations replicate (and replace) civil society institutions within a state. § This approach also allows the government to control who speaks on behalf of the people . Ø Most communist regimes were corporatist organizations. Ø Clientelism refers to a system in which the state draws members of the public into the government by providing specific benefits in return for public support . § This idea relies on patronage to co-‐opt individuals, rather than specific organizations. v Personality Cults Ø A personality cult refers a promotion of a leader as “someone who embodies the spirit of the nation.” . • idea that the leader of your country is more than what they are • Ex. Putin-‐ loves photo ops, represents the nation as a whole § Political leaders are portrayed as heroes or as being “larger than life” rather than being a normal politician. § Personality cults attempt to generate charismatic legitimacy by convincing the public of the leader’s qualities. Ø Media support is crucial to creating a personality cult. • Needs the media to be sympathetic § The media must portray the leader as personally appealing, and must also attribute political victories to their leadership. • Ex. early seasons of Game of Thrones-‐ dwarf leads army to win the war but bratty king gets the credit Ø Ex. Kim Jong-‐Un, Josef Stalin. v Models of nondemocratic rule Ø Most nondemocratic governments feature institutions that exist in democratic states . § Nondemocratic states may feature an executive branch and a legislature and some feature an electoral process. § However, these institutions are not constrained by a separation of powers and are often used to advance the interests of a state’s leaders. Ø Nondemocratic systems can be classified according to how they utilize the type of power previously described. § Do leaders of nondemocratic states maintain power by resorting to violence, or cooptation, or by developing a personality cult? Is it a combination of all three? § These types of power can be deployed in ways that create four basic nondemocratic systems: monarchial/personal rule (king or queen), military rule (general), one-‐party rule, and a theocracy. v Personal/Monarchial Rule Ø Personal/Monarchial rule is the most tra ditional form of nondemocratic rule. • Whatever you decide goes • What everyone is used to so no one will try to change anything § Under this system, states are governed by a single individual whose personal decisions establish policy . § Such rulers usually enjoy traditional forms of legitimacy, though some may also develop charismatic legitimacy. Ø This system can also be supported through a type of clientelism called patrimonialism. § Patrimonialism refers to an arrangement whereby a ruler depends on an array of su pporters, who gain direct benefits in return for support of the ruler’s agenda . § These specific individuals benefit from support of the ruler; however, the rest of society is governed through violence. Ø Personal rule, accompanied by patrimonialism, characte rizes some cub-‐Saharan states. (Ex. Zimbabwe, Lybia) v Military Rule Ø Military leaders may directly intervene in politics , in theory to provide stability during a period of unrest . § The military may also act if they see the current government as a threat to t he nation’s (or the military’s) interests. Ø Military rule often emerges through a coup d’état. § Military leaders use coercion in these conditions and civil liberties are quickly restricted while civilian leaders and political opponents are arrested. Ø Military rule lacks a specific ideology. § Legitimacy, if any, is earned as legal-‐rational legitimacy. • Solve problems as they emerge so people of society will be more on the government’s side § This type of rule can be considered bureaucratic authoritarianism, or a system in which military leaders implement technocratic solutions to national problems without public participation. v One-‐Party Rule Ø A one-‐party system refers to a regime in which a single party controls all political life and prevents other parties from emerging or holding power . § Membership in the party is around 10% of the population. • Larger political party in terms of its organization • The party dominates everything Ø Party members work in “cells” (or divisions) and help address local issues and identify (and prevent/demolish) political threats in society as a whole. § Party members are given specific privileges in return . (Ex. Healthcare or Housing ) • Large group of supporters because of the rewards given to them § Thus, a patrimonial system may develop in one -‐party states. Ø One-‐Party rule is a feature of Communist states. v Theocracies Ø Theocracies represent attempts to fuse religious authority with state authority . § Theocracies employ the authority of the state to advance religious values. § Theocracies may vary widely depending upon the religious sect implementing them . Ø Democratic regimes may exist in theocracies, but such values would be sharply constrained by religious values and leaders. § Iran features a president and legislature , but their decisions can be overturned by the Guardian Council and the Supreme Leader. v Conclusions Ø Nondemocratic states emerge from conditions similar to those that create democratic states . § Modernization and resource distribution , or the lack of both can influence this process. § Conditions specific to a country also account for how a state develops. Ø Nondemocratic governments use a variety methods to remain in power and can be structured in a variety of ways. § Co-‐potation may allow a nondemocratic government to remain in power . • Democracy is not the norm § Military rule and a Theocracy are equally undemocratic. Ø Nondemocratic regimes are declining in number. § However, democracies may “slide” into authoritarianism and are traditionally unstable.