Unit 2 Lecture Notes: Fall 2016
Unit 2 Lecture Notes: Fall 2016 MUS 15
Popular in Music Appreciation
Popular in Music
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esmeralda Winland on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 15 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Matthew Roy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Unit 2: Serious & Popular: G.F Handel & John Gay in London Lecture 9/29/16 Setting: 1720s in London Giulio Cesar ● Role: sung by a man with a woman voice → castrato ● Vocals were show off & over the top Castrato ● Castrated male singers were castrated before puberty → very common at this time ● Note: female singers were not allowed to sing in Catholic Churches ● Castrated singers faced physical effects → long arms legs, large chest cavity/lung capacity (helped them sing longer/higher pitched) ● These men were highly prized as singers ● All lead singers were expected to be male castrato ***opposite of today’s idea of masculinity Francesco Bernardi → “senesino” → could have been/sung as cesar (castrato) Handel ● 1685-1759 ● 1st opera was in hamburg, germany ● Violinist & keyboard player in theatre ● Primarily a composer of opera ● Spent 3 yrs in Italy → gets familiar w/ Italian music ● Court Music Director in 1712 ● London in 1712 to keep close relationship with royal family ● Popular composer of I talian opera ondon** Italian Opera ● Drama in music → in Italian & sung ● 1st theatre: Rome 1632 → Venice 1637 ● Opera is a business (sell tickets, make money) ● Usually consisted of impressive sets with special effects to get public satisfaction/acceptance → keep the customers happy ● The fancier/more elaborate the better → high status/classy entertainment ● Opera was for the public but still viewed as a privilege 18th Century London Italian Opera ● Thriving, lots of trade/slave trade ● Taste for Italian music → English composers write in Italian and Italian style ● People demanded Italian music by Italian Composers Royal Academy of Music ● Joint-stock company in 1719 ● Handel was their music director, led the orchestra, rehearsed musicians, hired singers from Italy Why Italian Opera? ● Public entertainment seen as a privilege ● It was a luxury import even if they couldn’t understand it → The most famous musicians in London were imported from Italy Recitative ● Plot action ● Real time ● Dialogue but it is sung ● Fluid → speech like Aria ● Emotional reflection → lyrical, melodic, show off ● Time suspended → dramatic ● Regular beat Connect the dots ● Opera = a luxury import → people are willing to pay a lot of money for the singers to travel ○ High class entertainment for the upper/middle class audience in London ○ Seen as high class art ○ It is a business ○ Difficult music with star singers Lecture 10/4/16 Serious & Popular: G.F Handel & John Gay in London Recap: Handel/Italian Opera ● Audience: upper/middle class → people of means ● Luxury from London → spectacle, very expensive to produce → became a part of London cultural landscape/public life ● Audience wanted Italian Opera in Italian Setting: 1720s London John Gay ● 1685-1732 ● Born in england and had little success before “The Beggar's Opera” Comic Opera in Europe ● Traditional opera = very serious, plots are from history/greek myth, about present day lower/middle class Critics said → traditional opera is not rational/natural because ● It had a happy ending ● Is awkward/doesn’t sound like speech ● The Arias are repetitive/long ● Is in Italian → Why? Comic Opera ● simple/more natural ● A response to traditional opera in England Ballad Opera ● Simple singing, spoken dialogue interspersed with a simple song ● Based on French Opera comique ● Featured new words to old tunes ● The singers were not professional singers they were popular style singers because the songs were simple ● Public entertainment for the lower and middle class → cheap to produce opera with small orchestras ● 1st popular was “The Beggar's Opera” by John Gay The Beggar's Opera ● Performed 62 times → huge success → had merchandise ● Recognizable tunes → folk tunes/melodies ● Satire of london politics and made fun of Italian Opera for being over the top Italian Opera ● Virtuosic display ● Recitative ● Super star singers ● Audience = upper/middle class ● Subject: history/myth ● Serious spectacle → high class art for the noble Connecting the dots ● Ballad opera → public genre supported by average people→ reflects the importance of large middle/low class public (they are able to afford it) →popularity lasted about a decade ● Ballad opera = dependent on Italian opera because ○ It was an alternative to Italian opera ○ It was a satire of Italian opera
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