Ling 201 Week 7 Notes
Ling 201 Week 7 Notes LING 201
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Jahaske on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 201 at University of Arizona taught by Rachel Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistics in Linguistics at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
10/3/16 Quiz due tonight. For Phonetics Assignment (Due Wednesday) Make sure to be specific. To be able to describe a vowel: Height Position Tense/lax Roundness Diphthong is a complex vowel. Move from one position in the mouth to another. Similar to an affricate, there are two different parts of sounds coming out of the mouth Popular dipthongs: o The "oy" sound in boy. [ɔɪ] or [ɔi] or [ɔj] low-> high o The "I" in bite [aj] low -> high o The "ou" in about [aw] low -> back American English loves dipthongs. Nearly all the tense vowels end with a "off glide" Off-glide: relaxing of the mouth at the end of a tense vowel Other languages such as Spanish or French don't do this quite as much as is seen with American English. Rhotacization: vowels that mesh with "r" [ɹ] Monophthong: o Bird, fur, her, herd Diphthongs: o Beer, fear o Bear, fare o Tour, sure o Four, more o Bar, far English also loves to reduce u stressed vowels. Either the vowel will become a schwa, or become something very close to one. Shortens in length Tongue is in a neutral position If the last letter in a word in a vowel it is NOT reduced If a schwa is followed by an "r" then it becomes a schwar. American English also loves to not pronounce t's and d's. They will often be replaced with a flap. Syllable: a unit of rhythm. All words have syllables. A syllable can be broken up into the following: Nucleus or peak Onset Coda Rhyme Syllable / \ Onset Rhyme | / \ Consonant Nucleus Coda | | Verb Consonant All words have a nucleus, but the onset and coda are optional in some languages A tip to detect stress: You can sign, I.e. use a sign song voice to call a pet, the syllable that is the longest is the syllable that carries the stress. Sonority: how the words resonate Vowels have the most 2nd approximants 3 nasals When we put a string of sounds together, we mix sonorous with non-sonorous. This gives language a rhythm. Vowels are difficult to separate vs consonant. Formants in a spectrograph First formant, how fast the vocal folds are vibrating The relation between the second and third formant tells you the sound Sonority Contour Principle: Syllables have the highest sonority in the middle. The number of peaks corresponds to the amount of syllables Phonotactic rules: words that are allowed in a language Borrowing: the process of borrowing words from other languages. When languages with very different phonotactic rules it creates interesting mixtures. Phoneme: a basic sound that has the linguistic function of distinguishing words. Minimal pairs: pair of word that have identical pronunciation except for a single phoneme and whose meanings differ Pat, tat, cat, bat, sat, fat, vat, that, hat You know if you change a sound and it changes the meaning then you have a phoneme. Allophone: a pronunciation of sound. A phonetic variation of a single phoneme that does not change the meaning. Aspiration: the period of voicelessness between the release of a stop and the onset of the vowel Voiceless stops /p, t, k/ are aspirated word-initially and before stressed vowels except after [s]. 10/5/16 New homework, create two new brand names for each specified criteria in the file one D2L Syllable Structure Practice – Syllable 1 [kan] Onset: [k] Peak: [a] Coda: [n] Rhyme: [an] Clusters: none Syllable 2 [zəs] Onset: [z] Peak: [ə] Coda: [s] Rhyme: [əs] Clusters: none Only a consonant can be a coda or an onset. A vowel can never be a code or an onset. Completely disregard spelling when you are attempting to identify anything with phonetics, it will only mess you up. Syllabic nasals – Word final nasals are syllabic, they act like a vowel, when they follow an obstruent. o Prism o Bottom Nasals following approximants are not syllabic Word-final liquids are syllabic when they follow another consonant o Handle o Riddle o Hammer o bitter Aspiration – /ʰ/ The period of noiselessness between the release of a stop and the onset of the vowel, a.k.a “that puff of air” is referred to as aspiration. This is indicated by a superscripted “h” placed after the consonant In English, voiceless stops (only voiceless) /p,t,k/ are aspirated word- initially and before stressed vowels, except after [s]. peep pop tut Flap – Phonetic variant of /t/ and /d/. Occurs in north American English between two vowels. Velarization of /l/ - /l/ is usually an alveolar word, but when it becomes velarized it moves back to the velum. Leap Clap Peel Milk Unreleased stops – English stops are unreleased before other nasal or oral stops and sometimes at the ends of words. Dental stops – English alveolar consonants are dentalized before dental consonants Nasal plosion – Instead of having a burst of air before a nasal consonant coming through the oral cavity, it comes out of the nose. Sadden Ridden Deaden Lateral plosion – English only has one lateral, the /l/. When a stop and lateral are next to one another the air is released along the sides of the tongue Riddle Dreidel Co-articulation – Pronunciation of sounds is influenced by and sometimes becomes more like the sounds around it. Many different sounds are produced differently due to co-articulation. Aspiration is NOT an example of co-articulation If you have a vowel followed by a nasal, the vowel generally becomes nasalized. IPA Practice – 1. Shoot 2. Spectacular 3. Refrigerator 4. Kitty 5. Cotton 6. Trouble 7. Prank 8. Eighth 9. murder
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