New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Comm. 89 (Jansma) Week 2 Notes


Comm. 89 (Jansma) Week 2 Notes Comm 89

GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All lecture and section notes from week 2 of Comm. 89 (Research Methods) with Professor Jansma
Theories of Communication
Class Notes
jansma, Comm, comm89, Research Methodologies, UCSB
25 ?




Popular in Theories of Communication

Popular in Communication

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 89 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by JANSMA in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Theories of Communication in Communication at University of California Santa Barbara.

Similar to Comm 89 at UCSB


Reviews for Comm. 89 (Jansma) Week 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/08/16
Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Week 2 Lecture 4 - 10/4/16 - Theory of Linguistic Relativity Theorists: Sapir & Whorf (AKA: Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) • • Major Premises: - Language shapes perceptions of reality - Different linguistic backgrounds (cultures) produce different realities • Contexts: All • Whorf’s Concept of Relativity: - “All observers are not led by the same physical evidence to the same picture of the universe, unless their linguistic backgrounds are similar, or can in some way be calibrated…” What aspects in your life are shaped by language? How? • - Social Judgement Theory • Theorist: Sherif & Sherif (1960) • Major Premises: - Attitudes (judgements) remain stable until challenged • How is this claim similar to one from another theory? Attribution Theory; similar processes going on. Claims about people don’t change until you receive new information - Changes in attitudes depend upon initial orientation (anchor point; what we initially thought) • What are YOUR anchor points? - “They had a great Valentine’s Day”. What did they do? • Went out to dinner and laughed together • Picnic at the beach during sunset 1 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • Looked at the stars - “She sent a lot of emails”. How many messages did she send? • 8 • 15 • 100 • Context: Interpersonal, Group, Organizational Function: Persuasion • - This theory is limited to only persuasion, that is all it attempts to explain • Key Concepts - #1: Three Latitudes/Ranges of Attitudes • Acceptance • Rejection • Non-commitment - <—Reject—Non-commitment—Accept—Non-commitment—Reject—> - #2: Ego-Involvement • Identity is tied to your position about the issue • Reduces latitude of acceptance - You’ve thought it over, you’ve rejected positions on either side, your overall latitude of acceptance becomes more narrow • Enlarges latitude of rejection - #3: Receiver Distorts Source’s Position • Contrast Effect: think their position is less like our own Assimilation Effect: think their position is more like our own • - Distorting something because you really want to believe it or them - #4: Persuasion Occurs When: 2 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • Latitude of Acceptance is reinforced or even narrowed in response to attempt to change it • Latitude of Acceptance is expanded to include an attitude/opinion that was in Latitude of Non-Commitment - Ex: “Exposure to Cell Phones Can Contribute to Cancer” • American Cancer Society says “Cell phones emit radio frequency anergy and tissues nearest to the antenna can absorb this energy” - Ex: “Radiation from Cell Phones is Enough to Pop Popcorn? Will this statement fall in your latitude of acceptance? Latitude of • rejection? Latitude of non-commitment? • Strength’s & Weaknesses of Social Judgement Theory - Strengths Internal Consistency: it’s logical • - Doesn’t say that an idea can be in your latitude of acceptance and latitude of rejection, it makes sense on paper, at face value it just seems to make sense • External Consistency/Support from Data - Off of paper, when it’s tested, the theory holds up - Weaknesses • Limited Scope: only looks at persuasion - Very simple, linear theory Doesn’t explain what happens in group processes • Lecture 5 - 10/6/16 - Constructivism Theorist: Jesse Delia • • Major Premises: From Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory: 3 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 - Based upon our interactions with others, we create cognitive categories (constructs) to help us understand/interpret social objects and events and to guide our actions - Greater number and variety of cognitive construct —> greater ability to create more strategic messages • Contexts: All of them • Personal Construct System - Collection of bi-polar and mental yardsticks organized within interpretive frameworks used to evaluate and interpret the environment, people, and situations we observe • Ex: - Exciting———————Dull - Good————————Bad - Big—————————Small - Develops over time • Start with simple and general • Through experience, variety/increasing cognitive ability, maturity, socialization, etc. grows to be complex and specific - Cognitive Complexity • Highly developed personal construct system empowers us to: - Distinguish subtle behavioral and personality differences across individuals Ex: twins • - Not rely on stereotypes - Perceive others/situations in more comprehensive and integrated ways- as unique individuals - Make sense of behavior by individuals even when appears inconsistent • Ex: best friend, make excuses/explain for things they do that you don’t like - Evaluating Your Personal Construct System 4 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ) measures the complexity of our personal construct system - Ex: How different are your constructs? How many do you have? • Differentiation: Extent to which personality constructs used to describe a person describe distinct qualities - Ex: Joe is funny, makes me laugh = low differentiation/redundant VS. Joe has dry wit, not goofy = high differentiation/adds more information - Perspective-Taking Increased cognitive complexity —> Increased ability to take the role of the • other • Better able to understand where people are coming from, how they will react • Young children have not yet developed this ability because they are not as cognitively complex as adults - Person-Centered Messages • Increased cognitive complexity —> Increased perspective-taking —> Ability to personalize messages - Ex: Trip with friends, ask parents differently or very nicely • Low PC: - Ignores how others might feel - Doesn’t adapt to context - Addresses own goals only High PC • - Custom messages - Considers others’ perspective - Strategically adapts to other’s goals - Negotiate - Message Creation: 3 Stage Process • 1. Goals 5 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • 2. Plans - what worked in the past? Should I adjust it? • 3. Actions - nonverbal/verbal behavior - Message Design Logic • Our cognitive constructs shape how we approach designing messages to reach our goals • Design logic is determined by our cognitive complexity • Some logics are better able to achieve goals in a situation than others - 3 Types of Design Logic: • 1. Expressive - Brain dump - Say what you feel/think without editing • Ex: 4 year old selling puppies: “Here, take it!” • Conventional - Guided by rules - Societal norms influence design - Attend to politeness - Gain social approval • Ex: 7 year old: “Excuse me ma’am, would you like to take a puppy?” • Rhetorical - Destructive reality to address all goals - Most sophisticated, strategic, person-centered - Messages can change the way we view the world in order to find solutions Ex: 9 year old: “They’ll be taken to the point” (convince parents with kids to • get a dog) • Major Application Areas For Constructivism: - Comforting 6 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • Ex: Console classmate with person-centered message - “God is with you” for a non-religious person doesn’t work - Persuasion • Ex: Convince your roommate to do chores more regularly - Education • Ex: Explaining things differently for a mom than a kid Evaluating Constructivism • - Strengths: • Practical utility (compliance gaining, comforting messages, relationship maintenance) Internally consistent/valid • • Externally consistent/valid • Heuristic - Weaknesses: • Reliance on Role Category Questionnaire (only 1 test) - Questionable reliability of test Section 3 - 10/6/16 - Notes for paper: • DO NOT call the References Page “Works Cited” • If you are paraphrasing something, you do not need to provide the page number unless you are a direct quotation • No abstract necessary • Sources: DO NOT cite lecture! - Limit citations of the text book - Actually do some research on your theory- find a source outside of the text book, lecture, and assigned readings to draw a lot of your description of the theory from 7 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • Use Google Scholar - Sapir-Whorf: • AKA Linguistic Relativity Theory • Premise: Our language shapes our perceptions of reality • Context/Application: All - Social Judgement: Premise: Attitudes remain stable until challenged • - We tend to be very set in our attitudes until they are challenged • Theory of persuasion; helps us in the persuasion process - Anchor Point: where you currently stand on an issue, the center of your latitude of acceptance • Ex: pro-legalization of marijuana or anti-legalization of marijuana; your starting point • 3 Latitudes: Represent the range of our attitudes, how we feel about whatever issue - 1. Acceptance - 2. Rejection - 3. Non-Commitment • R————NC————ACCEPTANCE————NC————R Ego-Involvement: • - When we care a lot about an issue, our latitude of acceptance tends to be smaller because it also involves our identity/ego • How and when does persuasion occur? - When your latitude of acceptance is broadened/becomes larger - When your latitude of acceptance is shortened/becomes smaller - Constructivism: 8 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 • As we grow and become more cognitively complex, our constructs evolve and become more complex (this is desirable, you become better at reading people) • Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ): - Measure of cognitive complexity - Is often criticized • Message Creation Process: - Going into any sort of communicative event, we have some sort of plan (happens subconsciously and instantly): • Goals: what you want to get out of the conversation • Plan: thinking back to how you have achieved your goal in the past (draw back on the schema in your head), devise some sort of plan in your head • Action: what you say (verbal and nonverbal actions) • Message Design Logic (3 Types): Scenario; talking to TA for a better grade - 1. Expressive: expressing emotions without a filter of what is socially acceptable • “Give me a better grade!” - 2. Conventional: guided by rules, conventions, and social norms • “Hi, how are you doing today?” (Small talk, having an appropriate interaction with your TA before asking) - 3. Rhetorical: requires great cognitive complexity, person-centered messages (tailored the message exactly to the audience/TA) 9


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.