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POLI201 Chapter 6 Notes

by: Cleopatra Shabazz

POLI201 Chapter 6 Notes POLI 201 E02

Cleopatra Shabazz
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes identify Congress as the first branch of government and explains the differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate, The Electoral System and How a Bill becomes a Law.
American National Government
Dr. Rauh
Class Notes
political science
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleopatra Shabazz on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 E02 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Rauh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina - Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 6 Important Term Definition/Main Idea Political Positions Congress     First branch of government  Outlined in Article 1 of the Constitution  Powers  Tax and spend  Create an army and navy  Declare war  Regulate commerce  Make currency  Elastic clause = make laws “necessary and proper”  Representation  Constituency: district composed of a specific area where an official is elected o Delegate: legislator votes based on the preferences of their constituencies o Trustee:  legislator   votes   based   on  what   they   feel   is   best  for   their constituencies  Descriptive Representation:  the goal is to have a legislature that represents the population while sharing similar demographic characteristics  Bicameral Legislation  Composed of two chambers or houses  House of Representatives and Senate House Senate 435 Members 100 Members Based on population Equal representation State representation varies 2 members per state Local Constituency Local and National Constituency *While the Senate has the power to ratify treaties, both House and Senate have the power to impeach the President* The Electoral System  Candidates need ambition, money, name recognition, a strong political base, charisma, and a strong organization in order to win an election  Incumbency  Incumbency: running for a political office that one is currently holding  Advantages o Casework:  member of Congress performs certain tasks or services  for constituents in order to gain the trust and support of Congress o Patronage: services, benefits, and other resources that incumbents provide for their districts o Pork­Barrel Legislation: legislators spend money on localized projects in order to bring more money to their district     Name Recognition = 80% incumbents winning elections  Money     More $$$ incumbents spend = lower chance of being reelected o Struggling candidates spend more money  Congressional Districts  House districts are reappointed among states every 10 years and the  lines are redrawn in order to reflect population changes  Gerrymandering: when voters are appointed in a way that gives an unfair advantage to a specific political party  Can occur based on how the voting lines are redrawn Legislative Organization  Parties  The House and Senate are divided into two parties o Democrats = party caucus o Republicans = party conference  Leadership  Speaker of the House:  presiding officer  over the House of Representatives for every party voter (most important position)  Majority Leader: elected leader who holds the most seat in either the House of Representatives or Senate and serves under the Speaker of the House  Minority Leader: elected official under the Majority Leader who represents the minority  Whips: discuss the intents of party voters with the party leaders  Committees  Standing Committee: permanent committee that meets on a regular basis o Gatekeeping Authority: the power to determine if any changes will be made to a policy o Proposal Power: the ability to present a proposal before a full legislature  Subcommittees: division of standing committees into smaller committees that focus on more specialized areas  Staff Agencies:  agencies responsible for providing Congress with  independent resources and expertise How a Bill Becomes a Law 1. Committee a. A member of Congress introduces the bill in a committee  b .    Most bills die in committees c. Some enter subcommittees before being amended 2. House of Representatives a. Rules Committee determines which rules legislation will consider when debating about the bill a. Closed Rule: prohibits amendments from being introduced b. Open Rule: allows amendments to be added 3. Senate a. Typically have unlimited debates  b .    3/5 Senate (60 votes) = cloture (end of debate) c. Filibuster: tactic used by minority senators who talk for an unlimited time until the majority votes for a cloture  *Before a bill can be passed to the President, House and Senate must pass the bill in the EXACT SAME FORMAT or else they will continue passing the bill back and forth* 4. President a. Can pass the bill as a law b. Can veto the bill a. Pocket Veto: President refuses to take action and the bill dies after 10 days b. Override: Congress can override a veto with 2/3 vote in each chamber


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