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Intro To Human Communication (COM 100) Textbook notes Chapter 10

by: Annely Arriola

Intro To Human Communication (COM 100) Textbook notes Chapter 10

Marketplace > Arizona State University > > Intro To Human Communication COM 100 Textbook notes Chapter 10
Annely Arriola
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These notes cover everything important that is in chapter 10 in the book Human Communications by Jess K. Alberts, Thomas K. Nakayama, Judith N. Martin
COM 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annely Arriola on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Arizona State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Intro to Human Communication (COM 100) Chapter 10 notes – Small Group Communication Human Communication in Society­ Jess K. Alberts, Thomas K. Nakayama, Judith  N. Martin Reasons to study small group communication: 1) Fact of life 2) enhance college performance 3)  enhance success in your career 4) enhance success in your personal life. Grouphate: The distaste and aversion that people feel toward working in groups Primary Groups: Groups that provide members with a sense of belonging and affection Secondary Groups: groups that meet principally to solve problems Social Facilitation: The tendency for people to work harder and do better when others are around  Small group work can promote critical thinking, which leads to better decisions  A group of people offers more collective information, experience, and expertise  than any single person can offer. Disadvantages of group work: 1. Group work can be time consuming. 2. Groups can fall into the trap of too much closeness and too much agreement  and then get distracted from the task at hand or jump to premature conclusions and make unwise decisions. 3. Groups can also silence divergent opinion, particularly those of minority  group members. 4. Group discussion can be less than satisfying when some group members  dominate or withdraw. Small Group Communication: Communication among a small number of people who share a  common purpose or goal, who feel connected to each other, and who coordinate their behavior What defines a small group communication?  1. A small number of people a. Fewest number that constitutes a small group consists of 3 while the upper maximum limit that constitutes a small group is 7. Generally, people in  small groups tend to work better, while those that are in big groups tend to stray away from the group and feel disconnected. 2. A common purpose a. The group works together to complete a task/ purpose 3. A connection with each other a. When group members don’t feel a sense of connection, they will not  perform as well as they should. 4. An influence on each other a. Members of small groups need to coordinate their behavior, and, in doing  so, they may exert influence on each other. Most groups aren’t successful  without the positive contribution of all members. Small Group Communication and the individual  To better understand communication processes in small groups, think of its two  primary dimensions: Task communication and relation communication. o Task Communication­ It focuses on getting the job done. o Relational Communication­ Focuses on group maintenance and  interpersonal relationships such as offering encouragement or mediating  disagreements. Group Roles: The shared expectations group members have regarding each individual’s  communication behavior in the group Task roles: Roles that are directly related to the accomplishment of group goals Small Group Task Roles: 1. Initiator/ Contributor: Proposes new ideas of approached to group problem solving. 2. Information Seeker: Asks for information or clarification 3. Opinion Seeker: Asks for opinions from others. 4. Information Giver: Provides facts, examples, and other relevant evidence. 5. Opinion giver­ Offers beliefs or opinions. 6. Elaborator­ Explains ideas, offers examples to clarify ideas. 7. Coordinator: Shows relationships among ideas presented. 8. Orienter­ Summarizes what has been discussed and keeps group focused. 9. Evaluator/Critic: Judges evidence and conclusions of group 10. Energizer: Motivates group members to greater productivity. 11. Procedural Technician: Performs logistical tasks­distributing paper,  arranging seating, etc. 12. Recorder­ Keeps record of group activities and progress. Relational roles: Roles that help establish a group’s social atmosphere Small Group Relational Roles: 1. Encourager­ Offers praise and acceptance of others’ ideas. 2. Harmonizer­ Mediates disagreement among group members. 3. Compromiser­ Attempts to resolve conflicts by trying to find an  acceptable solution to disagreements. 4. Gatekeeper­ Encourages less talkative group members to participate. 5. Expediter­ Tries to limit lengthy contributions of other group members. 6. Standard Setter­ Helps set standards and goals for the group. 7. Group observer­ Keeps records of the group’s process and uses the  information that is gathered to evaluate the group’s procedures. 8. Follower­ Goes along with the suggestions and ideas of group members;  serves as an audience in group discussion and decision making. Individual roles: Roles that focus more on individuals’ own interests and needs than on those of  the group Small Group Individual Roles 1. Aggressor­ Attacks other group members, tries to take credit for someone  else’s contribution. 2. Blocker­ Is generally negative and stubborn for no apparent reason. 3. Self­confessor: Uses the group as an audience to report non­group related  personal feelings. 4. Joker: Lacks involvement in the group’s process, distracts others by telling stories and jokes. 5. Dominator: Asserts control by manipulating group members or tries to  take over group; may use flattery or assertive behavior to dominate the  conversation. 6. Help Seeker: Tries to gain unwarranted sympathy from group; often  expresses insecurity or feelings of low self­worth. 7. Special­interest pleader: Works to serve individual need, rather than  focusing on group interests. Strategic communication: Communication that is purpose directed Leadership in Small Groups  As a group member in community, religious, school, or social groups, you have  noticed that most groups and organizations function better with effective  leadership.  Definition of Leadership: An influence relationship among leaders and followers  who intend changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes. Trait theory: leadership theory that suggest that leaders are born.  Some of the traits associated with effective leadership are physical and include being  male, tall, and good looking. Functional (situational) theory: A theory that assumes leadership behaviors can be learned.  Functional theory assumes that whatever the group needs at a particulat time can be  supplied by a set of behaviors any group member can contribute. According to  functional theory, a group does not need a designated leader; rather, any group  member can serve as a leader at any particular time by filling the required role. Shared (collaborative or distributed) leadership: A type of leadership style where functional  leadership is extended to an organizational level; all members are equal partners and share  responsibility for the work of the group  What makes up a shared (Collaborative or distributed) Leadership? 1. All members are equal partners 2. All share a common purpose or goal 3. All share responsibility for the work of the group, all have respect for the  people on the team and the skills and ideas that each bring to the team 4. All work together in complex real­world situations Style Theory: Theory that asserts that a leader’s manner or style determines his or her success Authoritarian leader: Leader who takes charge, makes all the decisions, and dictates strategies  and work tasks  This type of leadership is appropriate in military, sports, or crisis situations. Democratic Leader: Leader whose style is characterized by considerable input from group  members  In this style, group discussions determines all policies, strategies, and division of  labor. Laissez­Faire: Leadership style characterized by complete freedom for the group in making  decisions.  This style is characterized by complete freedom for the group in making decisions.  The leader participates minimally and may supply materials and information when  asked, but she/he makes no attempt to evaluate or influence the discussions. Transformational Leadership: A leadership style that empowers group members to work  independently from the leader by encouraging group cohesion. Four characteristics of a transformational leader: 1. Have high moral and ethical standards that engender high regard and loyalty from followers. 2. They have a strong vision for the future, which stimulates enthusiasm and builds  confidence among followers. 3. They challenge the status quo and encourage innovation in an organization. 4. They recognize unique strengths and capabilities of followers and coach and  consult with them to help them develop their full potential. Charismatic Leadership: A leadership style in which extremely self­confident leaders inspire  unusual dedication to themselves by relying upon their strong personalities and charm.  Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership are very alike.  Transformational: Strong vision, high expectations for followers, builds relationships, creates loyalty to organization. Enduring inspiration.  Charismatic: Strong vision, high expectations for followers, relies on strong  personality, creates loyalty to self, leadership may be short­lived. Servant Leadership: A leadership style that seeks to ensure that other people’s highest priority  needs are being served in order to increase teamwork and personal involvement According to Greenleaf, a servant­leader must excel at these ten characteristics: 1. Awareness 2. Listening 3. Empathizing 4. Persuasion 5. Conceptualization 6. Foresight 7. Stewardship 8. Healing 9. Commitment to the growth of others 10. Building community Effective Small Group Communication  Equal Participation  A consensus decision­making style  A cooperative conflict style  A respectful communication Style Problem­ Solving Agenda John Dewey’s Five Step Procedure 1. Step One­ Define and Delineate 2. Step Two­ Analyze the Problem 3. Step Three­Identify Alternative Solutions 4. Step Four­ Evaluate proposed solutions 5. Step Five­ Choose the best solutions Decision­ Making Phases 1. Phase One­ Orientation 2. Phase Two­ Conflict 3. Phase Three­ Emergence 4. Phase Four­ Reinforcement Analysis Paralysis: Potential pitfall in small group interaction; occurs when excessive analysis  prevents a group from moving toward a solution Brainstorm: To generate as many ideas as possible without critiquing them Primary Tension: The uncertainty commonly felt in the beginning phase of decision making Secondary (Recurring) tension: Conflict or tension found in the second or conflict phase of the  decision­making process. Emergence Phase: The third phase of the decision­making process; occurs when group members  express a cooperative attitude Reinforcement Phase: The final phase of decision­making process when group members reach  consensus, and members feel a sense of accomplishment. Groupthink: A negative, and potentially disastrous, group process characterized by “excessive  concurrence thinking”. Cultural Diversity and Small Group Communication Innovation­ Several Researchers have found that groups with a diverse membership are more  innovate than homogeneous groups. Performance (Efficacy)­ Some research studies report that diverse groups work more effectively. Group processes: The methods, including communication, by which a group accomplishes a  task. Group Enjoyment: Do people enjoy working in this group and this particular set of people?


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