Business Ethics: Notes on Assigned Reading
Business Ethics: Notes on Assigned Reading PHL 203
Popular in Business Ethics
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Philosophy
CHEM 111 003
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Fialli on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 203 at Salem State University taught by Dr, Krishna Mallick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Business Ethics in Philosophy at Salem State University.
Reviews for Business Ethics: Notes on Assigned Reading
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/08/16
Notes on Introduction of T om Morris "We've come to a juncture in history when we need to understand the human condition more deeply than ever before and apply that understanding to the way we live and do business every day; the people we live with and do business with will not be satisfied with anything less." p. 3 "Overall job satisfaction and corporate morale in most places may be at an all-time low." p. 7 "Philosophy… is the passionate pursuit and wholehearted embracing of wisdom, or genuine insight about living." p. "Laying the right foundations for long-term business excellence is a matter of bringing the deepest, most naturally renewable motivation into all our endeavors together." p. 9 "Aristotle… brought a talent for careful observation into the service of an incredible analytical ability to see beneath the surface of life." p. 10 o Believed that "everyone in this life is really after the same thing: happiness." p. 10 "This is the universal human quest, underlying every other activity." p. 11 Happiness as Pleasure Happiness both is and isn't the same as pleasure. Happiness as Personal Peace "We need… a measure of inner peace that will allow us to be flexible and steady amid all those unexpected things that life throws at us." p. 14 o But, in order to grow, we need action and problems. p. 16 Happiness as Participation in Something Fulfilling "Happiness is participation in something that brings fulfilment." p. 16 "We are our best and feel our best when we are engaged in a worthy task." p. 16 "It was always a matter of the joy of doing, of creating, of participating in the building of new things to enrich the world." p. 17 What exactly does bring fulfillment to human beings? Different things for different people The Four Dimensions of Human Experience 1. The Intellectual Dimension, which aims at Truth 2. The Aesthetic Dimension, which aims at Beauty 3. The Moral Dimension, which aims at Goodness 4. The Spiritual Dimension, which aims at Unity 1. "I've become convinced that these four dimensions of experience, and these four foundations of excellence, provide us with the key to both rediscovering personal satisfaction at work and reinventing corporate spirit in our time." p. 20 Part 1: Truth Chapter 1: The Intellectual Dimension at Work "Truth is our guide." p. 25 o "No one can navigate well through life without an accurate map by which to steer." p. 25 "We should cultivate an environment in which people are not afraid to tell us the truth." p. 27 "the capacity to handle the truth, the ability to get at it, and the skill to use it well brings with its exercise great power." p. 27 Martin Buber, an influential Jewish theologian o I-It relation: you value it only insofar as it serves your purposes o I-Thou relation: the fundamental stance that one human being ought always to take toward another person, a relationship of respect in which the other individual is viewed as having intrinsic value, value in and of himself or herself, regardless of whether that individual can produce any further value for you German philosopher Immanuel Kant o One human being should never treat another person only as a means to some extrinsic end but primarily and always as an end in himself o You should never view other people as having value only for what they can do for you "When you do not create an environment in which truth is respected, we do not have a working environment in which people are being respected." p. 29 "Given and received properly, a concern with sharing truth inevitably helps to generate a spirit of cooperation crucial to good working relations over the long run." p. 29 "There is probably no greater source of wasted time and energy in modern corporate life than distraction that arises when truth is not readily available in the workplace and speculation, gossip, and rumor rush in to fill the void." p. 30 o "Human beings can't stand to feel helpless, so to compensate, they latch on to the first notion around that looks like relevant fact." p. 30 "Truth, even hard truth, if passed on with as much understanding, kindness, and sensitively as possible, is always the foundation for solving any problem in a sustainable way." p. 31 "In business, as in every other facet of life, relationships rule the world." p. 32 Double Power Principle: to the extent that something has power for good, it has corresponding power for ill. Most of the time, it's up to us how we use that power. p. 33 "Because truth is so powerful, it can be used to do great good or to bring about significant damage." p. 34-35 "An ability to speak the truth in love is an inestimably valuable habit in any working relationship, and should be both explicitly encouraged and practiced by those in authoritative positions." p. 36 "What these managers most often fail to understand sufficiently is that very few people are capable of doing their jobs at a high level of excellence with only a limited knowledge of overall conditions relevant to their work." p. 36 o "It typically results in greatly expanded power." p. 36 o "as knowledge is shared, it expands. And as knowledge expands, power expands." p. 37 Open-Book Management: an approach to business life that centers on the concept of sharing knowledge with all associates about the financial shape, overall market, and strategic plans of the company p. 37 o "It frees people to be and do their best. If they know where they are and what's going on, they can figure out how to do what needs to be done." p. 38 o "If we respect and nurture this side of their lives with a give-and-take of ideas and with all the truth we helpfully can provide, we make an important contribution toward their feeling some measure of meaningfulness, fulfillment, and happiness in their work with us." p. 38 Chapter 2: Truth and Lies Lying or manipulating for a good cause does not make it right o Act true to your nature o It is better to tell the truth because if they find out you are lying, things will fall apart and those you lied to will turn against you, and then you can't undo the damage. Story of Odysseus and Neoptolemus "action breeds habit, and habit can be very hard to control or break." p. 44 "Once deception is countenanced in the tactics of any organization, the seeds of self-destructive mistrust are sown within that group." p. 45 o "Suspicion takes tremendous mental energy and time better directed elsewhere." p. 46 "The only deeply prudent way to run an organization is to insist that people tell the truth, to each other, to suppliers, to clients, and to the government. Truth has to be one of the leading values of any organization that values its own health." p. 46 "Respecting the truth, caring for it, and nurturing it in an organization is not just the job of top executives, although they should always lead the way and set the example; it is everybody's job." p. 47 Chapter 3: The Truth About Excellence: A Powerful Idea "The culture and life of any group of people, and thus of any organization, is to a significant extent a result of the power of the ideas at work in people's minds-both the focal ideas that are talked about a lot and the background assumptions that are hardly ever mentioned, yet shape everything else." p. 49 Presuppositions: are those deep background assumptions that form the rails along which our trains of thought and action run p. 49 o Most crucial for business, among other things, is the idea of excellence p. 49 "Excellence is always an actual state of superior performance rising out from an original state of potentiality." p. 49 Zero-Sum Game: is any contest in which, in order to be a winner, there has to be a loser, or a group of losers p. 50 o The rewards of any zero-sum game have to add up in such a way that the more you get, the less I get, or preferably vice versa. P. 50 Competitive Excellence: a state of rising from the crowd and receiving the spoils of victory p. 50 o "Competitive thinking in the pursuit of excellence can be helpful." p. 51 o "The competitive victory model tends to promote individualistic and adversarial thinking about excellence." p. 51 o "In addition to encouraging excessive individualism and inappropriate adversarial aggressiveness, the competitive model of excellence carries with it one other major problem: This way of thinking about excellence cannot distinguish between individual excellence and what is most properly called competitive excellence." p. 53 "The point is, there is a form of personal, individual excellence that is not essentially competitive in nature." p. 53 Comparative Growth Model: we judge whether we are moving in a direction of excellence not by vying with some external competitor but by comparing our present state with our previous state, our present self with our previous self p. 55 o "The new business strategy of continuous quality improvement is a current application of the comparative growth model to questions of excellence having to do with product, service, or process quality." p. 56 o "To put comparative thinking about excellence into action requires that we have a clear standard or envisioned goal, an accurate state of relevant self-knowledge, a strategy for improvement, and a scale of measurement." p. 56 o "In order to appreciate our present state, we must understand where we are relative to our goal and remember where we've been." p. 56 o An example: "All the world's major religions share a three-part ideological structure. They lay out: A conception of where we are An ideal for where we ought to be A path from the former to the latter." p.56 o "We need a strategy of improvement, for moving from our present condition to a place closer to our ideal." p. 57 o "Comparative thinking can move us along in the direction of excellence and the competitiveness we so deeply desire." p. 57 o "The comparative growth model… can sometimes encourage a narrow self-focus that easily becomes problematic." p. 57 Self-absorbed "In our world it is the person or institution that can look beyond narrow self-interest and self-monitoring, as important as these are, and see a bigger picture, contributing energy and time to projects and structures that transcend the immediacy of narrow self-interest, that ultimately flourishes." p. 58 "In fact, the more purely altruistic an act of self-giving is in its intent, the less merely altruistic it is in its results…by seeking to benefit others, you can end up benefiting yourself beyond any expectation." p. 58 "any model of excellence that encourages a narrow self-focus tends to blind us to what in the end might move us farther along toward the superior excellence of which we're capable." p. 58-59 Relationship Model: this model rests on the premise that a person can be in a variety of possible relationships with a peer, and a company with a peer institution. o Combative Relationship: the most negative relationship that can exist between individuals or institutions p. 59 Stance: fighting Attitudes: aggression Actions: resistance Consequences: damage o Competitive Relationship: there is not combat here, but there is a contest p. 60 Stance: striving Attitudes, actions, and consequences: rivalry and mixed motivations "Involves a division of energy and focus that can sometimes slow your own progress and deplete your resources unnecessarily." p. 60 "your are always keeping your eye on your goal and sometimes keeping your eye on your competitor" p. 60 "Competition can be energizing and productive, or distracting and exhausting." p. 60 o Cooperative Relationship p. 60 Stance: agreeing Attitudes: acquiescence Actions: nonresistant obedience Consequences: a multiplication of hands getting the job done o Collaborative Relationship: "When you collaborate with others, you partner up; you bring the best of who you are and what you know to the table, as does your partner, and together you think and act in ways that might not have been available to either of you alone." p. 61 Stance: partnering Attitudes, actions, and consequences: "synergistic interaction" All about teams and basic transformation; community, creativity, learning, building, and pioneering p. 61 "in the collaborative thinking model an individual human being, or an individual organization, contributes to its own excellence by its own actions, but the boundaries of its identity do not circumscribe the contours of its potential." p. 61 "collaborative thinking and working can create more fulfilling and productive relationships, making for better and stronger organizations." p. 62 "Our excellence… always involves what we do with, or are, to others." p. 62 Motivations for Excellence o Competitive Motivation: the Push p. 63 "I'm pushing you to push to be the best I can be, and you're pushing me to push you to be the best you can be. Each of us performs better than we would have apart from the competition." p. 63 o Comparative Motivation: the Pull p. 63 "It attracts us and calls us to put forward our greatest efforts. The greater the ideal, the greater the power it can have in our lives." p. 63 o Collaborative Motivation: the Partnership p. 64 "It involves the power of shared vision mutually developed." An example is Aristotle's final cause "Collaborative work requires taking other people's ideas seriously, treating all our associates as individuals with minds, with real intellectual experience from which we can benefit." p. 65 Needs to be guided by their sense of what their competitive context requires or how they need to grow p. 65 Aristotle's four basic kinds of causes in the world that contribute the making things what they are Material Cause: the basic substance of a thing; the most fundamental stuff that goes into its being what it is p. 64 Formal Cause: the form or pattern that makes something the kind of thing it is p. 64 Efficient Cause: a force that pushes and in that way brings about something's being what it is p. 64 Final Cause: a force that pulls, drawing something out into being what it is capable of being p. 64
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'