Chem 127 - Class Notes Week 3
Chem 127 - Class Notes Week 3 Chem 127
Popular in General Chemistry for Agriculture and Life Science I
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aenea Mead on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 127 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Jennifer Retsek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Agriculture and Life Science I in Chemistry at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Vocabulary Absorption: When an atom takes in energy, resulting in an electron jumping to a higher energy level. Em ission: When an electron jumps to a lower energy level, and thus releases energy. Quantum N umber: describes an electron's orbit Atomic Orbital: 3D regions in space where there is a high probability of finding an electron ____________________________________________________ MODELS OF THE ATOM Bohr’s Model of the Atom: Bohr theorized that an atom does not radiate energy while in energy level (stationary state). Instead an atom absorbs or emits energy when an electron changes energy levels. Energy of a Photon = ΔE atom (energy = energy in other equations we know) | | N is called a uantum number. Quantum numbers are: ● Integers (not zero or negative) ● Tell relative radius of orbit ● Tell energy level ● As n increases, energy levels get closer together Limit for Bohr’s Model: - Only work for atoms and ions with one electron Equation that can be used to calculate the energy gained or lost when an electron jumps to a different orbit: ΔE = −Z R ( − ) 12 12 H n f ni ΔE: ΔE atom related to Ephoton (will be same value, but might not have the same sign +/-) Z = number of protons −18 R H Rydberg’s constant: 2.18 10 * J n = initial n orbit i nf= final n orbit Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom: - Electrons exhibit wave behavior as well as particle behavior - Schrodinger equation: ĤẎ=EẎ - E = energy of the atom - Ẏ = wave function (has no physical meaning, is just a mathematical depiction and an electron) - Ĥ = math operator 2 - Ẏ = describes the probability of an electron being present in a specific 3D region (called on orbital) Atomic Orbital: 3D regions in space where there is a high probability of finding an electron ● These differ from orbits (Bohr’s model) because they are 3D and not limited to a single path around an electron ______________________________________________________________________________ QUANTUM NUMBERS Name Symbol Possible Values Principle Quantum n 1, 2, 3…. Number Angular Momentum ℓ 0, 1, 2…(n-1) Quantum Number Magnetic Quantum m ℓ 0, ±1, ±2... (n−ℓ) Number Spin Quantum m s ±½ Number A good analogy to help understand what each of these mean is to picture a freshman living on a college campus. The rinciple Quantum Number is the dorm they are living in, the Angular Momentum Quantum Number is the floor that they are on, the M room and the Spin Quantum Number is which ed in the room. Each orbital is given a letter which is dictated by the ℓ value: ℓ value Letter designation 0 s 1 p 2 d 3 f 4 g Below is a diagram of the shape of different orbital. With each new energy level an electron reaches, the number of orbitals is double that of the previous energy level. **Note: All of what is written in these notes is important, otherwise it wouldn’t be here. What is highlighted in yellow, however, are the things I feel are the most important to know. It is also important to note that it is not important to memorize the highlighted equations because they will likely be provided for you, but rather it is important to understand the theories behind them and why they exist.
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