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Week 7 Human Development Class Notes

by: Alissa Cherry

Week 7 Human Development Class Notes 16985

Marketplace > Kansas State University > FSHS 110 > 16985 > Week 7 Human Development Class Notes
Alissa Cherry
GPA 3.8

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Chapter 4--the preschool years How children are thinking and growing at this time
Intro Human Development
Katie Thompson-Laswell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alissa Cherry on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 16985 at Kansas State University taught by Katie Thompson-Laswell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Development in FSHS 110 at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
The Preschool Years--Chapter 4 Saturday, October 8, 2016 7:15 PM Biological Domain 1 By age 2, on average, children are 25 to 30 pounds and close to 36 inches tall. By age 6 they're about 46 pounds and 46 inches tall. It is important to know that there are great individual differences based then height and weight 2 Because growth has slowed down in the preschool period, children need fewer calories a Some days they eat anything and everything they can get their hands on, other times they barely eat anything at all 2 Injuries and sickness are common during this period. Accidents are the greatest risk due to high levels of physical activity, curiosity and lack of judgement. 3 The brain is undergoing three important changes. There is an increase in interconnections among cells and myelin, the corpus callosum thickens, and the lateralization improves. These brain changes lead to cognitive development Cognitive Domain 1 In infancy, Piaget's cognitive stage was the sensorimotor stage. In the preschool years, that stage is called Preoperational stage. This is characterized by the inability to perform operational=organized, formal, logical mental processes. Some aspects include:  Centration=concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring others.  The lack of conservation=the knowledge that quality in unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects  The incomplete understanding of transformation=the process in which one stage is changed to another  Egocentric=thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others 2 During this period, children also experience big cognitive attainments. One is intuitive thoughts=the use of primitive reasoning and avid acquisition of knowledge. They often act as authorities on particular topics 3 Vygotsky theorized that cognition is the result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation. Children are viewed as apprentices who learn through experiences with mentors in their culture. 4 An important concept in Vygotsky's theory is the Zone of Proximal Development=the level at which a child can almost, but not fully perform a task independently but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent of expert. When there is appropriate instruction within the zone, children are able to increase their understanding and master new tasks.  Scaffolding=the support for learning and problem solving that encourages the increases in understanding the skills 5 There are many language improvements such as: sentence length increase at a steady pace, syntax doubles each month, enormous leaps in number of woods used through fast-mapping; use plurals and possessive; past tense; ask and answer  Fast mapping=the process where new words are associate with their meaning after only a brief encounter 6 Children engage in private speech=speech that is spoken and directed at oneself. It allows them to try out new ideas, facilitates thinking and helps control behavior 7 Pragmatics also improves. Children begin to understand turn-taking, sticking to a topic, what is socially appropriate to say, and the use of different language in various settings Psychosocial Development 1 Erikson's stage during this period is initiative and guilt. If they resolve the conflict positively, initiative is the result=the desire to act independently and become autonomous. If negative, guilt results=guilt of unintended consequences resulting in shame and self-doubt 2 Self-concept is developing. Preschoolers tend to wonder about nature of the self and they mask questions like "Who am I?" 3 By the preschooler years, children have a well established gender identity=a sense of being male of female. There are several perspectives on this development.  Biological=inborn, genetic factors produce gender differences  Social Learning=gender related behavior learned by observing and imitating others  Cognitive=gender schemes form lens through which world is viewed; acting in ways that fit in or not 4 Play is critical to the development of children! It changed over time, becomes more sophisticated, imitative, cooperative, gradually more dependent on social and cognitive ways 5 There are 4 main parenting styles:  Authoritarian-valuing strict obedience; exhibit controlling, rigid, and cold style  Authoritative=supportive; sets firm, consistent limits; allows disagreements; uses reasoning, explanations and consequences  Uninvolved=not involved in children's lives; set few limits  Permissive=involved; place little or not control on children's behavior How each parents children grow:  Authoritarian parents=withdrawn, socially awkward children  Authoritative parents=dependent, moody children with law social skills  Uninvolved parents=emotionally detached, unloved, and insecure children  Permissive parents=independent, friendly, self-assertive, and cooperative children 1 Emotional self-regulation=the capability o adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity. This improves a lot in these years because: they can talk about feelings and engage in regulation strategies (age 2); develop sophisticated social skills 2 Aggression, both physical and verbal is present but declining in the preschool years. Instrumental aggression is motivated by a desire to obtain a goal and is higher in boys, while relational aggression is intended to hurt another's feelings though non-physical means and is higher in girls


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