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Covalent Bonds & Electronegativity

by: Stephanie Argueta

Covalent Bonds & Electronegativity CHEM 1151K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Chemistry > CHEM 1151K > Covalent Bonds Electronegativity
Stephanie Argueta

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About this Document

These notes cover the basic principles and rules for writing covalent bonds in lewis structures, resonance, polarity and electronegativity.
Dr. Thota
Class Notes
Chemistry, covalent bonds, electronegativity, Lewis Structure, polarity
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1151K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Thota in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY I in Chemistry at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Covalent bonds(cont’d) Ø A covalent bond (or a molecule) is represented by Lewis structure: valence electrons of all atoms are arranged to give octets (eight atoms) EXCEPT for Hydrogen that only takes in 2 electrons. Ø Other exceptions you should remember: o Any elements in energy level 3 (or in period three on the periodic table) can have more than an octet due to empty orbitals in the d orbital. **THIS IS ONLY TRUE FOR ENERGY LEVEL 3 ONLY** o Be can only have 2 electrons (a duet) Ø When drawing your Lewis structure, a molecule can also have resonance, which is basically alternating your bonds. You add this symbol to show resonance : ßà o Exceptions: § Hydrogen will always have one bond w/ no lone pairs § Halogens only form one bond & lone pairs Ø Shape of electrons: o Linear: two electron groups & two bond groups OR one bond group & lone pairs § Linear bonds have 180 º angle, can be polar (different electronegativity & unequal sharing of electrons) or non-polar (identical electronegativity) based on the direction of dipoles. o Trigonal planar: 3 electron groups & 3 bonding groups § Have 120º angle, can be polar/nonpolar, and overall shape is trigonal Ø Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR): electron groups are arranged as far apart as possible around the central atom to minimize the repulsion between negative charges. Structures will adopt to the minimum energy structure to avoid repulsion. Ø Electronegativity: ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond Ø Bonds based on polarity (in increasing order of polarization): o Nonpolar covalent bonds (weakest): must have polarity between 0 and 0.4 o Polar covalent bonds: polarity must be between 0.4 and 1.8 o Ionic bonds (strongest): polarity is above 1.8 Ø REMEMBER: o Electropositive elements GIVE UP their electrons (i.e they are elements in the far left of the periodic table) o Electronegative elements TAKE IN electrons (i.e they are found in the far right of the table) § Therefore, electronegativity INCREASES as you go across the table but DECREASES when you go down a group! o A bond has two electrons; a double bond has four electrons. o When writing your Lewis Structure, you put the most electronegative element in the middle of your structure!!!


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