BIO 340 - Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 8 (EXAM 1)
BIO 340 - Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 8 (EXAM 1) BIO 340
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Larson on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 340 at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Andrew McNaught in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
What is Ecology? WEEK 1 NOTES (8/29/16, 8/31/16) Definition: Study of relationships between organisms and their environment. -It’s all about babies! -Study reaction and/or adaptation to environment -Species interactions -Distribution and abundance of a species -Question the flow of energy and cycling of matter Abiotic factors: Non-living factors -Climate, nutrients/distribution , soil, weather, water, pH, virus, etc. Biotic factors: Living factors -Interactions between species/orga nisms (mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, predation, symbiosis, disease, competition) -Population changes, density, distribution, etc. Quantitative Science 1. Making the obvious evident 2. Making the not-so-obvious evident 3. Showing the obvious to be mistaken Chapter 1: Levels of Ecological Investigation 1. Individual Organism: Physiology and Behavior 2. Population: All individuals of a similar type (i.e. sp ecies) that occupy a given area 3. Species: All populations of a similar type on earth 4. Community: Interacting species in a given area 5. Ecosystem: Community plus abiotic environment 6. Biosphere: The entire globe These levels are hierarchical: One level built on previous level Chapter 8: Patterns in Nature and the Process of Scientific inquiry Process of Scientific Inquiry 1. Observation or describe pattern 2. Ask question 3. Generate hypothesis or educated guess 4. Test hypothesis -Design experiment -Null v.s. alternative hypothesis -No difference, is difference -No relationship, is relationship -Event based on chance, event not based on chance 5. Analyze results using statistics Patterns in Nature Presence/Absence: Many spatial scales (global, regional, local, microhabitats) Distribution patterns (dispersion): RANDOM CLUMPED NEARLY REGULAR/EVEN Nearly regular/even – organisms are territorial or competitive Clumped – uneven distribution of resources or water, pack organisms Random – even distribution of resources, no competiti on, mating Abundance patterns: Why this pattern? Generate testable hypotheses. Example: Possible limiting factors (hypotheses) -Salt gradient -Temperature -Nutrient distribution -Water flow/current -Prey/predator presence -Water depth Biotic Factors: Dispersal, behavior, and/or interactions Abiotic Factors: Physical and/or chemical Chapter 2: SOLAR RADIATION AND GLOBAL CLIMATE PATTERNS WEEK 2 NOTES (9/7/16) Climate: Large geographic region, long term/period of time (yearly), precipitation and temperature Weather: Localized area, short term/period of time (day -to-day), precipitation, temperature, wind, cloud cover, humidity, etc. What causes different climates on Earth? 1. Shape of the Earth: -Spherical shape creates unequal heating on surface (location relative to the sun) -Ray density at poles=low angle=more surface area covered=less heating=lower ray density at equator=high angle=less surface area covered=more heating=higher ray density -Cloud cover=rays scatter or be reflected, not r each the Earth’s surface=lower ray density 2. Orbit and Tilt: -23.5 degree tilt creates seasons -Tropic of Cancer is in Northern Hemisphere, Capricorn is in Southern Hemisphere -Summer Solstice on June 21, Northern Hemi. is tilted toward the sun, b ut far away in orbit -Fall Equinox on Sept. 22, Northern Hemi. is tilted toward the sun, and close in orbit -Winter Solstice on Dec. 21, Northe rn Hemi. is tilted away from sun, and far away in orbit -Spring Equinox on March 20, Northern Hemi. is tilted away from the sun, and close in orbit 3. Atmospheric Circulation Patterns -Hadley cell created by unequal heating -Warm, moist air rises in tropics; creates rainfall/rainforests (0 degrees latitude) -Cool, dry air descends to the surface at subtropical latitudes; creates dry, arid land/deserts (30 degrees North & 30 degrees South of equator) -Hadley cells generate Ferrell & Polar cells (60 degrees North & 60 degrees South of equator) 4. Rotation of the Earth: -Coriolis Effect – moving fluid is deflected to the right of its path in the North and deflected to left of its path in the South 5. Topography: Mountains and Oceans -Adiabatic cooling -Cool air flows over the top and falls down the leeward side of the mountain (deserts) -Warm, moist air flows back towards the windward side of the mountain (valley, foothills) Chapter 3: CLIMATE AND WORLD BIOMES WEEK 3 NOTES (9/12/16 , 9/14/16) BIOME: Major division of the terrestrial environment distinguished by vegetation type -Associated with a particular climate Examples: Tundra (lichens, sedges, grasses, no trees because of permafrost, very dry and cold) -Taiga/Boreal Forest – spruce, conifer, aspen trees, wetland areas/muskegs, slightly moist and cold -Temperate Deciduous Forest – deciduous = falling leaves from loss of water, few layers of canopy and subcanopies, moist/moderate and mild temperatures -Prairie – grasses, forbes/broad leaved plants, too dry for trees and mild/warm temperatures -Savanna – chaparral, “dry grassland”, few hot-weather trees, more dry with warm temperatures -Desert – succulents with thick stem and no leaves (spindes), very dry and extremely hot during day -Tropical Rain Forest – multiple canopy and subcanopy layers , evergreens (never lose leaves), epiphytes (live on top of other plants/trees), very wet (Hadley cells) and very warm/hot Whittaker’s scheme (1975): Latitude vs. Altitude: Hopkins’s Bioclimate Law: 100 miles in latitude = 1000 feet in elevation Climate diagram: Define annual temperature and precipitation Chapter 3: LIFE IN WATER WEEK 4 NOTES (9/19/16) Earth is a Water Planet – Water covers 71% of the earth’s surface. Oceans (salt): 97% earth’s water Polar ice (frozen): 2% earth’s water Ground water (trapped/fresh): 0.5% earth’s water Lakes, streams (easily accessible, fresh): 0.002% earth’s water OCEANS – Life originated in the oceans. Oceanic zone: Deep water, offshore, Pelagic Photic – 0-200 meters, high amount of light, warm Plankton – “floating”, little mobility, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton Nekton – swimming, great mobility, Shark, Cuddle Fish Aphotic – 200-4,000 meters, no light, cold (4 °C, very dense) Predators, Invertebrates, Chemoautotrophs, Detritivores/Bottom -feeders Neritic zone: Continental shelf (200m deep), Neritic Open water – Plankton, Nekton Bottom – Benthos/Bottom dwellers (sponges, coral, anemones) Intertidal zone: Nearshore, influenced by tides/waves, water movement/desiccation Sea stars, barnacles, seaweed LAKES – Lentic (stagnant water) Limnetic zone: lentic, offshore, stratifies in summer , photic on top and aphotic on bottom -Plankton, Nekton, and Benthos that all can withstand fresh water -Stratification occurs in summer Epilimnion – sunlight penetrates and warms the water Metalimnion – temp. and other physical and chemical factors change rapidly with depth Hypolimnion – water is cold and dark, may lack dissolved oxygen (~4 degrees C) Littoral zone: nearshore, rooted aquatic plants (in 10 meter water or less), photic RIVERS – Lotic (moving water) Water current determines structure Rivers unaffected by humans will make an s -shape Pool-Riffle-Pool sequence, causes erosion on outer bends, depositing sediment on the inner bends, occurs 5-7x the width of the pool -pool = deep, slower moving area, fish use as habitat -riffle = shallow, faster moving area Most organisms are benthic, stay near bottom to avoid current pushing them downstream -adaptations to current includes flattened bodies, produce glue, have claws to hold or burrow, and can hide behind objects or burrow into the mud River Continuum Concept – detritus is the energy source for a river ecosystem Headwaters – forested, low light, few plants, filterers, shredders, predators Medium streams – open, high light, lots of plants, filterers, shredders, predators, grazers Large rivers – turbid, low light, few plants, Habitat pH Salt 02 Light Flow Deep Sea 7-8 High High Low Low Reef 7-8 High High High High Estuary 7-8 Moderate Variable Variable High Swamp 7-8 Low Low Low Low Bog <5 Low Low Varies Low Lake 7-8 Low Varies Varies Low Fen/Wetland 7-8 Low Low Varies Low River 7-8 Low High Varies High Soap Lake >9 Low Varies Varies Low
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