Week 6 HIST 1005 Notes
Week 6 HIST 1005 Notes HIST 1005
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Jason Wolfe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
15-20,000 BC: Humans made it to the Americas Common cultures in the Americas Technically considered pre-historic groups because they do not have written documents and is primarily based on archeology Early inhabitants: o Dispersed villages o Little contact with once another (usually where canoe travel was) o Isolated Had no domesticatable animals Wheel was not used for hauling or transportation because of the mountainour/jungle terrain and used instead pack animals Travel, communication, and trade limited Chavin in Andes (1400-200 BC) Lived in Andes mountains United by shared belief system Tied through shared cultural identity, NOT political unity Settled agriculture (maize, potatoes, llamas, alpacas, and wolves) Organized VERTICALLY Arts Created advanced textiles, carvings, and metal work (created independently of Europe/Asia/Africa Shared artistic tradition motivated by devotion to gods Chavin de Huantar (spiritual capital/temple) o Shamans communicated with gods through use of hallucinogens o Made pilgrimages to give tribute to temple o Sacrifices o Important to Incan and Aztec culture o Created devotional cults that focused on wild animals (jaguars, serpents, and hawks) Olmecs in Mesoamerica (1500 BC) 1 advanced civilization in central Mexico st 1 generation, small scale community trying to create new political and economic institutions o Loose confederations of villages o Traded with each other, shared common language, and worshipped same gods Practiced subsistence farming (maize, beans, squash, cacao), which allowed for a larger population Trade networks developed between villages for surplus produce, ceramics, and precious goods (jade) used for religious purpose Religion: o Cities are scared (where offerings and shamans were) o Deities centered around agricultural events (Rain god) o Art reflected the natural and supernatural (a jaguar that is part man and part jaguar) Sports: o Cities had athletic hubs o Ball courts Played with a rubber ball Players were memorialized in statues Possible ritualized sacrifice of players Nature and time o Cosmology Social distinctions o Had complex social hierarchy (priests -> chieftains (aristocracy) -> merchants -> farmers o Aristocracy controlled agriculture Loss of centers o Not clear why o Could have been volcanic activity increase, mass illness, mass emigration o Influenced other Mesoamericans Sub-Saharan Africa 4 regions: 1. Sahara desert Supported pastoral people, Tuareg Promoted contact between northern and Sahel region 2. Sahel region Economy based on fishing and agriculture Has shells (useful) 3. Sudanic savanna region Senegal river basin to west nile Grasslands Home to many W. African kingdoms Did not have tsetse flies (“African sleeping sickness”) 4. Western and central African rainforests Had tsetse flies Was hard to grow crops Similarities Some form of higher power There are animalistic beliefs Had some kind of divine king Rise of Matrilineal Inheritance and political power Importance in yam cultivation in society Women harvested the yams Kush Empire (1700-1500s BC) Capital at Kerma Tension with Egypt Traded ivory, gold, and slaves Meroe Kingdom Most developed of the Sudanic kingdom (Nibia) Only area known to people outside Africa o Contacted and conquered throughout history by Egypt o Strong connection to Sub-sahara Africa Influenced pharaohic culture o Wrote hieroglyphs o Erected pyramids To prove Egyptian autonomy, relocated capital 300 miles upstream Ring center for production and commerce Walled city contained monumental buildings West African Kingdoms Settlements established along Niger River o Iron-working o Weaving Nok Culture o Taruga saw early iron smelting o Stone to iron use o Tech and commodities spread east to west o Migrated into central African rainforests to farm o Best known for terra-cotta figurines Iron tools led to farming technology improvement o More food could be grown o Supported larger communities to increase population Bantu migrations started around 500-300 BC Warring Ideas in Mediterranean World Violent upheavals created new ways of organizing 2 nd generation societies o Seaborne people of the Basin shared common traits Shared goods and ideas Maritime technology: new ships and sails were faster and easier Homer’s Odyssey New world of city-states o Characterized by family-based associations of citizens who ruled collectively o Commercial centers were sites for exchange and trade o Self-government and democracy Known as Qart(Phonecian), polis(Greek), and civitas (Roman) Citizens governed themselves and selected officials o Types of self-government Ruled by tyrants Ruled by a few wealthy and powerful citizents (oligarchies) Ruled by all adult free males (democracy) o Families as foundation Small family unit most important Men ruled over household Women had little public role (those who carried on conversations in public were labeled courtesans) Spartan women were the exception Exercised alongside men Held property and right o Competition and war Violent rivalries between city-states over land, trade, religion, and resources Developed better military technology and tactics Phalanx: Greek word for a block-like infantry formation Sparta was exception due to social organization of discipline and military order (no cointed money or chattel slavery, Helots) Rivalies were in the form of althetics Olympic Games (776 BC) Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC): longest and most destructive, fought between Athens and Sparta Classical Greece Challenge of Peria o Ionian Revolt(499-494 BC): Turkey revolted but Persia was too strong and won o Persian Invasion (490 BC): Persia attacked Greece because they blamed Ionian Revolt on Greek Influence Battle of Marathon: see Greek city-states come together to fight Persia o Xerces (480 BC) Renewed Persian Invasion Battle of Thermophylae Battle of Salamis: 1 great naval battle, Greeks beat Persian fleet Battle of Plataeu(479 BC): Greek victory over Persia Athenian Empire in Age of Pericles Delian League (478-477 BC): a pact between Greek city-states that followed the idea that if you start trouble, we won’t help you; but if you fall into trouble, we will. Pericles o Democracy Magistrates: one who administers and regulates laws Ostracism: banishment by popular vote o Athenian imperialism Control over League Thucydides o Spartan fear of Athens Athens = naval power along with tall walls vs. Spartans = land power (siege warfare, tried to starve the city) Plague in Athens in 430 BC, which killed Pericles Athens surrender in 404 BC Greek city states continue to fight Culture of Classic Greece Writing in history o Herodotus (484-425 BC): wrote the “Persian Wars”, father of history, tried to give accurate history o Thucydides (460-400 BC): wrote “History of the Peloponnesian War”, practiced writing objectively, not writing about gods, human action NOT divine action Greek Drama o Tragedies o Nature of Good and Evil o Comedies Drama-Tragedy/Comedy o Pedagogical intent (teach a lesson), not just entertainment o All actors are male o Emphasis on story and not stage Classical Ideal Architecture o Temples o Math ratios found in nature o Parthenon: takes viewers into account from basically any angle Scultpure o Ideal beauty o Subjects usually male (men are in control) Columns: from simple to complex o Doric: most simple o Ioninc o Corinthian: most complex Greek Love of Wisdom o Philosophy o Sophists: no right or wrong, 1 relativists, relied on rhetoric (ability to make an argument) o Socrates: Socratic method, examined aspects of life through others
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