SMAD 101, Week 6 Notes
SMAD 101, Week 6 Notes SMAD 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Smith on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
DAY 16: News Services ● Associated Press (AP) ○ Created in 1848 as a cooperative effort to reduce telegraph costs. ● United Press International (UPI) ○ Merging of United Press and International News Services in 1958. ● Mutual Syndication ○ Agreement to share information from different regional/international newspapers (L.A. Times and Washington Post) ● Individual Syndication ○ New York Times provides info to other papers ○ Paid according to circulation size. Syndicates ● Feature Syndicates ○ Untimely ○ Human interest, advice, humor, columns ● Hundreds of syndicates ○ Largest of which include Newspaper Enterprise Association and King Features Syndicate. ● Syndicates are paid according to circulation sizes. Circulation is measures by the ABC, or Audit Bureau of Circulation (which was often under investigation for corruption). Visual Entertainment ● Society has become more visually oriented ○ USA Today was the first to change its design to be more like its TV counterpart than a newspaper. ○ More use of color images- larger, brighter, colors, etc. ● Created a sense of “Visual Literacy” (color association) ● Creates a visual culture ○ Visual Literacy ■ Iconic Images ■ Visual windows and framing ■ Affecting the audience with the visual image- equivalence of showing and telling of information. ■ Manufactured realities- composite images. ■ Framed Realities, “The Decisive Moment”- Henri Cartier-Bresson, father of modern 35 mm photojournalism. ○ Sexuality as a subject of photojournalism. ■ “Weinergate”, Governor was charged because of sexting to minors. ■ Sexting to or with a fellow minor counts as the reception of child pornography and/or sexual harassment. ○ When you take a camera, which captures more than a human eye can, and add to it the digital impact of internet exposure. ● Changes brought about by “new journalism” ○ Creation of 24/7 news cycle ○ No down time , especially for cable casters, (dead air problem). ○ Ted Turner suggests problem is with embedded journalism- sources and journalists have closer relations and stories are affected. ● Editorial and Publication News Cycle ○ Five W’s (Where, What, Why, When, Who) and H (How) are practiced. ○ Less time to edit or review stories. ● Consolidationa process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media. ● Fragmentation- when rumors, opinions, and gossip change a story. ● Polarization- opinions being able to completely change the tone of a story. Alternative Forms of New Journalism- ● Blogging ○ The Drudge Report ○ Huffington Post ○ Expanded diverse writers- NY Times versus a blogger- redefines what a publisher is. ● News aggregate site. ○ The Drudge Report was the first publication to report on the Monica Lewinsky Scandal. ○ Andre Brubart aggregate news site. ● Hyperlocal news site ○ Citizen Journalism (nonprofessional untrained journalist, who wants states and shares information via the internet.) ○ Focus on local issues- as small as neighborhoods or geographic areas ○ Often complements any existing traditional media. ○ Often gives minority groups a voice in local issues. Present And Future ● Advances in technology make a better newspaper ○ Printing technology ■ Ink, color, paper, speed ○ Information technology ■ Electronic, newsrooms, desktop publishing, electronic databases. ○ Delivering Technology ■ Satellite interfaces replacing airwave transfer of information. ● Backpack Journalism ○ One person news team ○ Use of BGAN satellite terminals for coverage worldwide ○ Risky ● Ethical Issues (SPJ, ASNE, RTNDA) ○ Lack of training for the SPJ ○ Truth Privacy, confidentiality, conflict of interest, social responsibility to the public. DAY 17: MAGAZINES ● Originally centered towards broad general audiences but there was an eventual segmentation. For example, the multitude of national magazines became selections of niche magazines. ● Proliferation (in media)- when several magazines are directed at the same industry are competing. ● Consumer magazine- Magazines suited towards consumers (common man/woman) ● Trade Magazines- Magazines suited to people in a certain trade/industry. ● Magazines are hard to make money from. ● The two sources of magazine income are ad revenue (primary) and sales via circulation. ● The cost of publication is decreasing Quintessential Niche Magazines- ● 1923- Time Magazine was first published by Harry Lewis and was made for short summarized articles of news. ● Ebony Magazine- Black interest magazine founded by John H. Johnson ● In 1960, “Cosmopolitan” changed to become a “New world women” magazine. ● Sports Illustrated- Breaks formula of niche magazines by reporting on something otherwise accessible by the common man. Something that an interested reader could get elsewhere. ● People- Focus on the people, famous people, but people. This tactic was called “Personality Journalism.” DAY 18: 1990’s- magazines either moving online or try to compete with online or digital media. ➢ Now indirect correlation, bigger physical presence. Magazine- comes from the french term for “Store house”. We use it because magazines were used as storehouses of information. Early Development- ● 1741: First American Magazines ○ Benjamin Franklin’s “General Magazine” ○ Bradford's “American Weekly Magazine” ● Early 19th Century ○ Saturday Evening Post- directed itself to a more female friendly audience. ○ Harper’s Magazine ○ Atlantic Monthly ● Difficult Venture ○ Low literacy rate, lack of advertising, poor distribution. Golden Age- From 200 magazines to 1800 ● Significant factors contributing to the golden age ○ Transcontinental Railway provided cheap and accessible transportation of both publications and news. ○ Postal Act of 1792 made it cheaper to send magazines over postal services. ○ Better Technology (linotype and steam powered printing press) ○ Tapping into advertising ● Magazines begin to narrowcast (becoming niche market/specialized magazines) ○ Cosmopolitan was not only a “Woman’s Interest” magazine but the first to become national. ○ Other Women’s interest magazines: Ladies Home Journal, McCall’s The Muckrakers ● Trying to fill the role of people’s champion ● Magazine’s were important to the media for industrial “exposé” ○ McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, Saturday Evening Post and Collier’s all helped produce sexual reforms. ○ Pure Food and Drug Act was passed in part because of magazine expsosés on the food and drug industries. ○ Fair trade Practitioners ○ Truth and Advertising. ● Henry B. Luce- Behind Time, Life, and Sports Illustrated. BIG COMPETITION ● Technological improvements make magazines more attractive ○ Better color reproduction and higher quality paper ○ Bolder graphics ○ Better photojournalism ● Covergirl to help sales. ● Radio isn't much of a competition because they don't offer visuals. 3 Magazine types developed during this time 1. “Digest”- Ex. Reader’s Digest. 2. “News Weeklies”- Weekly editorials about national/global news 3. “Pictorial Magazines”- image focused Competing with TV ● Development of TV hurts magazine industry ● People still buying magazines ○ “Look” and “Life” Magazine had more than 6 million subscribers when they folded and went digital. ● Advertisers prefered TV ○ TV was about same cost to produce, more dynamic medium, and had a greater reach than magazines. ● Magazines began subscription wars which hurt more than helped. Selective binding helps revival. Major Trends 1. Slight Growth in Magazine industry 2. Conglomerate Ownership is a rule not an exception 3. Single copy sales are decreasing 4. Magazines continue to specialize 5. Magazines going online. Magazine Genres (and Examples) ● News Magazines (Time Magazine) ● General Interest (People Magazine) ● Geographic (Cairo Magazine) ● Demographic (Ladies Home Journal) ● Lifestyle (GQ) ● Special Interest (Guns and Ammo) ● Trade and Professional (Broadcast Magazine) ● Elite Magazines (New Yorker) MANY MAGAZINES ARE COMBINATIONS OF THESE GENRES
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