KIN 312 Wu Fall 2016 Week 6 Scientific Measurment Notes
KIN 312 Wu Fall 2016 Week 6 Scientific Measurment Notes KIN 312
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 312 at California State University Long Beach taught by Wilbur Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Motor Control in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 6 Natalie Wong ***Notes derived from Dr. Wu’s Lecture PPT Scientific Measurement and Motor Control I. 2 General Categories of Measuring Motor Performance o Performance Outcomes Measures = Measures result or outcome of a skill Ex: distance thrown, speed, reaction time Measures of “what” o Performance Production Measures = inform us about how the nervous system, muscular system, and limbs are acting to produce the performance outcome Ex: EEG, EMG, force, limb kinematics (use external gadgets to measure occurrences inside the body) Measure of “how” II. Performance Outcome Measures o Reaction Time (RT) = indicates how long it takes to prepare and initiate a movement “go” signal to first initiation of movement/response o Movement Time (MT) = interval of time between the initiation of a response to the termination of a response o Response Time = time interval including both reaction time and movement time “go” signal to the termination of a response Warning Signal “Go” Signal Initiation of Response Termination of Response (Premotor & Motor) (Time) Foreperiod Reaction Time (RT) + Movement Time (MT) = Response Time III. Types of Reaction Time (RT) o Simple Reaction Time # of Stimuli: 1 # of Possible Responses: 1 Ex: Stimulus = Red signal flashes Response = press response key with index finger (Index Finger) KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 6 Natalie Wong o Choice Reaction Time # of Stimuli: 2+ # of Possible Responses: equal to the number of stimuli Ex: 1 2 3 (Index Finger) (Middle Finger) (Ring Finger) *One response per signal, this means: If the red signal flashes, the index finger reacts by pressing its associated button. If the yellow signal flashes, the ring finger responds by pressing its associated buttong. o Discrimination Reaction Time # of Stimuli: 2+ # of Possible Responses: 1 (specific) Ex: 1 2 3 (Index Finger) *Index finger only responds by tapping the response key when the red signal flashes. If the blue or yellow signals flash, there is no response. IV. RT related to Movement Time and Response Time o Reaction Time does NOT predict Movement Time AND Movement Time does NOT predict Reaction Time o Ex: Usain Bolt – has a slow RT off the starting block, but has a very fast MT V. Fractionated Reaction Time o Premotor Time (PRMOT) = time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus to the first change in EMG activity o Motor Time (MOT) = begins with first change in EMG activity to the first sign of movement st st “Go” signal 1 EMG activity (1 sign of visible movement) Initiation of Response KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 6 Natalie Wong (Time) Premotor Time Motor Time Reaction Time VI. Error Measures o 1dimensional ***Know how to calculate these!!! Absolute Error (AE) = measure without regard to direction Constant Error (CE) = measure with regard to direction Variable Error (VE) = represents variability and consistency of performance o Multidimensional Radial Error = use Pythagorean’s Theorem (a + b = c ) to solve for components of a right triangle RootMeanSquare Error ( RMSE) = indicates the amount of error between the performance curve performed and the criterion performance curve for a specific amount of time · For continuous motor skills ONLY! (Ex: tracking – following a cursor on a screen) VII. Kinematic Measures vs. Kinetic Measures o Kinematics = description of motion without regard to force or mass Displacement = describes changes in spatial location, specifically a straight line from the start position to the end position Velocity = rate of change of displacement over time Acceleration = rate of change of velocity over time o Kinematic Sequence = affects any rotational axis by going up from the ground and out through the extremities o Kinetics = refers to force as the cause of motion measuring tools = force plate, strain gauge, etc VIII. Other Measures o EMG (electromyography) = electric activity in muscles o EEG (electroencephalography) = electric activity in brain activity o PET (positron emission tomography) = used for measuring the concentration od positron emitting radioisotopes within different body tissues o fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) = visualizes brain function through change in fluid flow (cerebrospinal fluid, blood) o Lesions = remove portion of brain matter to see its effects on function (performed on lab animals)
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