Art History, Week 5 Notes
Art History, Week 5 Notes ARH 025VL
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 025VL at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Norris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Art History B in Art History at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Art History—Week 5 Notes Early Italian Renaissance Donatello revived many art forms from classical works such as contrapposto, life-size freestanding nudes, equestrian portraits, and large-scale bronze casting Donatello, St. Mark, 1411-13 -Freestanding sculpture -Carved marble -Contrapposto: Principle of weight shift. Results in a more life-like representation of the human form -St. Mark was thought to be a scholar, so Donatello studied sculptures of philosophers from Ancient Greece and Rome (he’s middle-aged, carrying parchment, and looks solemn) Donatello, David, 1440 -Sculpture is of right after David chopped off Goliath’s head (he’s got one foot on Goliath’s head) -Very feminine characteristics: hand on hip, long hair, funky hat (which happens to be a helmet with a laurel wreath on itYouthful and feminine characteristics give the message that God can use anyone to do His work -Revival of freestanding, life-sized, male nude sculptures -Nude sculptures celebrated the beauty of the human body -David plays a political role in Florence: people living there looked up to David because he was an underdog (like them) that was able to conquer his foe -Placed in the Palazzo Medici (the Medicis were a prominent Italian family) Verrocchio, Lorenzo de Medici, 1480 -Verroccio was da Vinci’s teacher -Medici was an important political figure (basically controlled Florence) and also a scholar -Terracotta Verrocchio, Colleoni, 1481 -Equestrian portrait -Soldier on a warhorse (mercenary general) -Colleoni commissioned the portrait of himself Note: Many people in this time period were obsessed with the “cult of fame”. Basically, they wanted to make a lasting impression on society, make a difference, and/or be remembered forever. Sculptors began using more naturalism in their work to help imply movement Pallaiuolo, Hercules and Antaeus, 1470-75 -Lion skin: attribute of Hercules -Hercules is trying to kill Antaeus -Dramatic, though accurate, representation of the human body -Triumph through adversity -Turtles are symbols of tenacity Masaccio, Holy Trinity, 1425 -God is holding Jesus up on the cross -The dove (Holy Spirit) is above Jesus’ head -Fresco -Donors are on the outer corners of the painting -Triangular composition -Roman-inspired architecture -Linear perspective (influenced by Brunelleschi) -Vanishing point in the distance -Orthogonal: lines leading to the back of the painting Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1425 -Continuous painting -Chiarosco -Consistent illusion through the uniformity of space, light, and form -Importance of the cultivation of arts and learning Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1470 -Room of the newly-weds -Painting on the ceiling looks like an opening to the outside (oculus) -Trompe l’oeil: Trick/fool the eye -Peacock represents Hera, Greek goddess of marriage Ghirlandaio, Birth of the Virgin, 1485 -Biblical figures placed in a Florentine home (elite household) -Sculptures of boys along the top of the wall signify that boy were more valued than girls and people thought that if expectant mothers looks at pictures of boys, they would have a boy instead of a girl Lorenzo de Medici (“il magnifico”) Naturalism vs. Idealization Platonic Academy: contemporaries of de Medici (philosophers, intellectuals, artists) including Michelangelo who grew up in de Medici’s household Neo-Platonism: Key ideas of Plato (all physical reality is flawed; perfection exists only in the abstract) were applied to their beliefs about ChristianityPerfection only exists in GodArtists can create paintings that are closer to perfection because contemplating idea beauty brings you closer to God Idealization: Not representing things as they are, but how the artist thinks they should be in a perfect world Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1484 -6’x9’ -Painted on canvas in tempera -Example of idealization -waves are in a decorative pattern (no linear perspective) -“ideal beauty”imagination, not reality -“Venus Pudica”: modest Venus; she’s covering her genitals and one boob Savonarola: Fanatic monk who thought the church was becoming corrupt because artists were painting things that were secular. He gained followers and they destroyed books, paintings, and other works of art. Botticelli joined and even destroyed some of his own works Example of theocracy: government is taken over by the church. Savonarola and his followers were eventually excommunicated, hanged, quartered, and dumped in the river.
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