Week 5 Chapter 4 Notes
Week 5 Chapter 4 Notes SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Johnson on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see SOC 1300 in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information Introduction to Sociology (SOC 13887) FA 2016: Patricia Dorsey WEEK 4 NOTES Chapter 4: Social Structure (Notes from Book and Lecture) What is Social Structure? Bourgeoisie – Owners of capital George Simmel – “Society is merely the name for a number of individuals connected by interaction” A bundle of forces collectively contributing to help the rich child become a rich adult and making it more difficult for a poor child to become a rich adult Structure enables what can be built; the framework Essential to what is possible Concept of free will o What are the limits of individual free will Laws Biological forces Are we really free? o Why can’t we do what we want? o What is Individual Agency? The ability to exert your free will and do what you want. Capacity to make free choices and assert will. Social structure has been defined as the typical patterns of institutions, societies, groups Human creations that influence or pressure people to… o Behave o Act Structure keeps things orderly and enables all activities To components of social structure o Social Hierarchies – can be found in any society; in which some groups or individuals are elevated above others Family Class Economics University Jobs o Institutional Environments – made up of rules, laws, organization, and the government that individuals navigate One of the most important and complicated concepts in the entire sociological tool kit All the things that provide a backdrop for all the ways we interact with one another Rules and norms guiding principle of our day to day lives Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information The full range of things that provide a structure for all actions we encounter Fundamental to the understanding Without social structure everyday life would be impossible When social structure is absent, its importance becomes more clear Most important thing about any structure is that it endures overtime even as other things change around it Social change happens slowly and modestly like a renovation opposed to a complete re-building Social structures are mysterious because they have multiple interlocking parts and because many components are not usually directly observable Exploitation – relying on others (surplus) labor to maintain own way of life Class consciousness – recognize interest Ideological Control – Belief in ideas that support living class Privilege is maintained through Discrimination Power imbalance within social structure Capacity of powerful to influence behavior Establish laws that exclude Reproduce power inequalities Social Movement Protest Legal and Political Challenges Collective actions Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil Rights Movement Voting Rights Act of 1965 Women’s Movement Population Changes, Social Roles & Hierarches Demography – study if population size and composition o Immigration, jobs, job types Critical Mass – a point where everyone becomes aware of them and they are large enough to sustain some kind of important activity The most common way a population changes is through immigration There have been two periods of high immigration from foreign countries that have had impact o 1. 1880 – 1920 from central and southern Europe drawn to northeast and Midwest large manufacturing industries o 2. 1965 – present from central America and Asia Great Migration – African Americans move to the north from the 1910s to the 196s in search for better job opportunities, better education for their children, and better life opportunities Changes in economy heavily influence the patterns of immigration Why do Institutions Influence Social Life Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information Institutions have a double meaning in sociology o 1. Any reoccurring pattern in behavior Ex: Institutions in religion, marriage o 2. Large enduring socializations of life Ex: school, military Institutions have a way of influencing and controlling our behaviors. We do one thing with one group and another thing when were around another group. Institutionalized: familiarized beliefs becoming systematically spread Religion became institutionalized through both religious text and places of worship Curriculum – Structure of coursework and content of a sequence of courses Organizations – Social networks that are unified by a common interest State – refers to all of the agencies and offices of government, the legal system, the military and the constitution that provides the basis of their respective rules Welfare State – bundle of policies and programs that provide social insurance and social assistance Endowing customs of life Longstanding organizations Formal Organizations – social networks, unified, purpose Why are institutions of government so important to social structure? o Policies How Social Structures is linked to Social Interaction? Socialization – we define ourselves by status and roles, social norms, rules, agents of socialization Why are Social Structures Slow to Change? Path dependency – customs of past, impact actors and organizations of today. “paths, once adopted, are extraordinarily difficult to reverse” How Do Social Hierarches Shape Our Life Choices and Relationships What are Social Hierarches – a set of important relationships within a social structure o Important social relationships o Confer statuses with roles o Tied to inequalities o Differences in endowments, valued goods o Give social structure its meaning Inequality – the differences in endowments and valued goods held by an individual or families Life Chances – individuals long term possibilities and potential Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information o Where you stand in relation to social hierarches has a major impact on your life chances Glass Ceiling – the lack of progress women have made moving into valued executive positions Society as a whole is impacted by social hierarches Generate tension conflicts Dominant & subordinate groups Our standing life choices Long-term possibilities & potential Intergenerational Social Mobility – movement from the social standings of your parents Power and Privilege in Social Hierarches Power – ability to influence Privilege – access to opportunities o Discrimination o “Better schools, better colleges, better jobs” Discrimination – a dominant group uses legal or informal means to control opportunities and reduce or eliminate challenges from subordinate groups Dominant Group – seeks to monopolize opportunities Subordinate Group – Subjected to inferior status Just because explicit legal restrictions on subordinate groups disappear does not mean that social hierarchies cease to exist Stereotypes – faulty generalizations about a subordinate groups applied to all members of the group