PSYC Chapter 7 Notes- Intelligence, Language, and Cognition
PSYC Chapter 7 Notes- Intelligence, Language, and Cognition Psych 1300
Popular in Intro to Psychology (Allison Blair Martir)
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1300 at University of Houston taught by Allison Blair Martir in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology (Allison Blair Martir) in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter 7 from “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition Pg 213. Cognition: mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, and information and including perception, concept formation, decision making, and language IMAGERY AND CONCEPTS Imagery: the mental representation of an experience including the 5 senses Concept: mental category used to classify things that share common characteristics Two types of concepts: 1. Formal Concept: concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules or definitions 2. Natural Concept: concept created through experiences and not definitions Prototype: An example used to represent the typical features of a concept Exemplars: examples of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experience Pg 215. DECISION MAKING Decision Making: The process choosing from among a set of options Bounded Rationality: limitations on decision-making that prevent it from being fully rational Additive Strategy: a decision making approach where options are rated and the most convenient option is chosen Elimination by Aspects: decision-making approach where options are evaluated using criteria that have been ranked according to importance, whichever meets more requirements wins Pg 216. Heuristic: “A rule of thumb that is derived from experience” Availability Heuristic: “perceived probability of an event or the importance assigned to it is” based on how easily the event comes to mind Representativeness Heuristic: a decision strategy based on how closely a new situation resembles a familiar one Recognition Heuristic: strategy in which decision making stops as soon as a factor that influences one toward a decision has been presented *Usually s strategy used only for people who lack knowledge on the situation at hand Ex: You’re voting for a presidential candidate but you don’t know any, however, you see that Hilary Clinton is a candidate and you’d prefer a female president so you stop going through all the options and immediately choose her Framing: The way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss as the outcome Pg 218. Intuition: decisions based on one’s “gut feelings” or “instincts.” *tends to lack logic and can be dangerous when confronting situations with more risks Anchoring: Overestimation of the importance of a factor taking away from the relevance of other factors Pg 219. PROBLEM SOLVING Problem Solving: “Thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal that is not readily attainable” Heuristics and Algorithms in Problem Solving Analogy Heuristic: compares problems to those encountered before, using similar strategies Working Backward: a problem is solved using a backwards process, figure out what the goal is first and then figure out the steps that would be taken in backward pattern -like retracing your steps Means–end Analysis: a problem is solved by first setting a goal and then finding the steps needed to fill in the gap from the problem to finding a solution Algorithm: “A systematic, step-by-step procedure, such as a mathematical formula, that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if applied appropriately and executed properly” Pg 220. Obstacles to Problem Solving Functional Fixedness: failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems Mental Set: using the same old strategy even though there might be a better strategy Confirmation Bias: Selective attention to information that confirms preexisting beliefs about the best way to solve a problem, “it worked last time” Pg 221. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial Intelligence: programming of computer systems to simulate human thinking Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs): Computer programs created to mimic human cognitive functioning Expert Systems: “Computer programs designed to carry out highly specific functions within a limited domain” Language: means of communicating thoughts and feelings using a system of socially shared but arbitrary symbols and grammar rules…you know what language is -_- Pg 222. THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE Psycholinguistics: study of how language is acquired, produced, and used and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning Five Basic Components of Language: 1. Phonemes: smallest units of sound in a spoken language, small basic sounds that make up a word 2. Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in a language, (prefixes, root words, etc.) 3. Syntax: grammar rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases 4. Semantics: the study of meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences 5. Pragmatics: The patterns of tone change like when asking questions versus making a statement and social roles associated with a language Pg 223. ANIMAL LANGUAGE Key features that are unique to humans: -Duality of Patterning: “Phonemes are combined in rule-governed patterns to create words; words are combined in rule-governed patterns to create sentences” -Productivity: finite number of sounds used to produce an infinite number of words -Arbitrariness: no meaningful link between an object and how its expressed phonologically -Interchangeability: Any sound that can be heard can be reproduced -Specialization: Language sounds are used only for communication -Displacement: Utterances can be about objects and events that are not present -Cultural Transmission: A social environment is required for language learning; it does not develop on its own -Prevarication: Language can express ideas that are untrue -Reflexiveness: Language can describe itself *animals can communicate with each other and some have learned to communicate with humans (like through the use of sign language) LANGUAGE AND THINKING Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: The notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person’s thoughts Proven false through experiment proving the language you speak doesn’t change the way you think LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE Bilingualism: ability to speak least two languages fluently Pg 228. THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence: one’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, reason, and to “overcome obstacles through mental effort” G Factor: Charles Spearman, term for a general intellectual ability that serves as a basis for all mental processes Primary Mental Abilities: Louis L. Thurstone rejected the g factor idea, believing in seven different capabilities that are involved in intellectual process whether alone or combined Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Howard Gardner also rejects the g factor, proposes that there are several independent forms of intelligence Savant Syndrome: individuals with brain damage who show a combination of intellectual disability and unusual talent or ability Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Robert Sternberg, theory that there are three types of intelligence: componential (analytical), experiential (creative), and contextual (practical) MEASURING COGNITIVE ABILITIES Pg 230. Achievement Test: test of the knowledge one has gained during their school career Norm-referenced: scores are compared to those of other students tested Criterion Referenced: scores are compared to a set standard or expectation Aptitude Test: test that predicts future performance in a particular setting or task like SATs Intelligence Test: A test of individual differences in general intellectual ability, norm- referenced Reliability: “ability of a test to result in nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test” Validity: ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure Standardization: Establishing norms for comparing the scores of future test takers; administering tests using a set procedure Norms: Age-based average results on standardized testing *it became illegal to execute individuals with mental disabilities Culture-Fair Intelligence Test: test used to prevent cultural bias, doesn’t penalize those whose culture differs from the dominant culture Pg 232. INTELLIGENCE TESTING: PAST AND PRESENT Intelligence Quotient (IQ): “An index of intelligence, originally derived by dividing mental age by chronological age and then multiplying by 100, but now derived by comparing an individual’s score with the scores of others of the same age” THE RANGE OF INTELLIGENCE Intellectual Disability: condition in which an individual scores below 70 on a standardized intelligence test and shows abilities lower than others of the same age *formerly known as mental retardation, a score less than 25 would show severe disability like even needing help brushing one’s own teeth Inclusion: Educating students with intellectual disabilities by placing them in classes with students who do not have disabilities Pg 236. NATURE, NURTURE, AND IQ Nature–Nurture Debate: debate on whether intelligence and other traits are primarily the result of genetics or the environment Heritability: index of the degree to which a trait is estimated to be influenced by genetics *twins tend to have very similar IQs whether they are raised together or not Adoption and Early Interventions *adopted children from low income communities then raised in middle to high class communities were seen to have IQs a few point higher than the national average, showing one’s environment can affect their IQ RACE AND IQ -it’s not race that affects one’s intelligence level but instead one’s environment, education, and how individuals react to stereotypes (by letting them demotivate them or opposing them) GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITIES -Girls greater success in school compared to boys is due to the ay by which girls approach school, girls tend to be more self-disciplined, willing to put in effort -Girls tend to be better in: English and Writing -Boys tend to be better in: Math and Science Pg 243. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Emotional Intelligence: The ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life Two Components: Personal: awareness and management of one’s own emotions Interpersonal: (Empathy) ability to be sensitive to other’s emotions and behaviors -women use both sides of the brain to handle emotional situations while men only use the left side CREATIVITY Creativity: ability to produce original valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems 4 Stages of Creative Problem Solving Process: 1. Preparation —searching for information that may help solve the problem 2. Incubation —letting the problem “sit” while the relevant information is digested, often below the level of awareness 3. Illumination —being suddenly struck by the right solution 4. Translation —transforming the insight into useful action Divergent Thinking: ability to produce multiple ideas to a problem for which there is no agreed-on solution Characteristics of Creative Thinkers: -expertise in areas they address -open to new experiences and ideas -independent and less influenced by others -hard working despite failures
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