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Civil Rights

by: Stephanie Argueta

Civil Rights Pols 1101

Stephanie Argueta

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About this Document

These cover everything from the beginning of civil rights to how civil rights work in the national/state governments.
American government
Mr. Glas
Class Notes
civil rights, primaries, caucus, American Government
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Glas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
Types of discrimination: o Public: discrimination by national/state/localthovernment. Victims are protected from this type by the 14 amendment Equal Protection clause o Private: discrimination by private/social group businesses. Unfortunately, the 14 Amendment cannot directly protect victims but congress has tried to find way to protect people from private discrimination Historical facts to remember: o Post Reconstruction § Compromise of 1877: Hayes wanted people’s votes in the South, in return he promised to remove federal troops from the south § Jim Crow Laws: “separate but equal” law in segregation § How minorities were pushed away from voting: • Poll tax • White primaries • Grandfather clause: your grandfather must’ve been allowed to vote • Literacy tests o Era of segregation § Civil Rights Act of 1875 ... was never passed b/c it was “unconstitutional” § Plessy v. Ferguson: created Jim Crow Laws § Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955): lead by Rosa Parks, who was soon arrested but sparked the movement. § Woolworth’s Sit Ins: civil disobedience in diners § March on Washington: Famous “I Have a Dream” speech § **Civil Rights Act of 1964** protection from discrimination § **Voting Rights Act of 1965** outlawed literacy tests, and other voting barriers § 24th amendment outlawed poll taxes § Key Court Rulings: • Brown v. Board of Education: integration of school but at “deliberate speed” • Loving v. Virginia: allowed interracial marriage LGBT Rights: o DOMA (1996) states didn’t have to recognize gay marriage o Obergefell v. Hodges: gay marriage allowed everywhere Importance of elections: o 2000 Bush v. Gore: Gore won popular vote except for the electoral vote & Florida. Since the votes were so close the Supreme Court had to do a recount and ultimately Bush won the election Frontloading: pushing campaigns back a few years before in order to avoid late voting for primaries Primaries: o Open primary: voters from another party can choose the ballot for another party (GA has this) o Closed primary: voters from one party can only vote in the ballot of their party Caucus: similar to a large town hall where people go to vote for their preferred nominee o Can either have private/open voting where people see your vote o Involves speeches, negotiations, and discussions Campaign strategies: o Party oriented: candidate relied on party’s platform, record, organization & resources to appeal to voters partisan identity o Issue oriented: directed at groups of Americans w/strong preferences toward policies on specific issues o Candidate oriented: organize the campaign efforts around his/her personal characteristics like experience, leadership and integrity PAC (political action committee): organizations w/aim of raising money to contribute to candidates for elective office Super PAC: no limit on contribution, disclosure donors, but can’t coordinate w/ or donate money to candidates Dark Money 501 © organization (from tax code): o No limit on contribution & do not have to disclose to donors o Cannot coordinate with or donate money o May participate in nonpartisan political activity providing “majority” of activity to “social welfare” activities o Some donate super PACS to hide donors, which is easy for rich people Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010): o Citizens united wanted to show a movie about Hilary Clinton and how unfit she is to run for president o REC stopped them b/c it violated the BCRA, which prevents corps &labor unions from funding “electioneering communications”. CU st said that BCRA violated the 1 amstdment o Supreme Court ruled that 1 amendment protects speeches from corporations, which is the first time in a while since the Supreme Court actually supported BCRA.


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