Ling 300, Morphology and Speech&Perception
Ling 300, Morphology and Speech&Perception LING 300 H01
Popular in HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Milliff on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 300 H01 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Robin Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Morphology Tuesday, September 20, 2016 1:17 PM What is morphology? The study of the internal structure of words. "word making" The Lexicon • The mental dictionary ○ So what do people do with it? What's in your mental dictionary? How does it get there? What's in a given entry? ○ Lexicographers: develop and work on dictionaries § Same general dictionary entries for the past hundreds of years • The word ○ Form ○ Meaning § "car" + "care" => "carecare": means generally the same thing apart, adding meaning to the words on their own § "car" + "pet" => "carpet": means something different unless you change the inflection The structure and formation of words • Word: smallest free form linguistic unit ○ English words are split by spaces, but there are other languages that chose different rules § Compounding and hyper-compounding in Finnish or German ○ Must be able to stand alone § "jump", "jumps", "jumper" § "castle", "castles" ○ May occur in a fixed position with respect to other § "the" is meaningless without the words around it • Morpheme: component of word ○ Smallest unit of language that carries meaning § Not the letter string, it's the meaning of the root itself ○ "act", "actor", "active", "activate", "reactive", "deactivate", "reactivation" § Common morpheme of "act" with more morphemes added on § "-or" is an affix because it only exists when added to the end of a root ○ Free vs. Bound § Not the letter string, it's the meaning of the root itself ○ "act", "actor", "active", "activate", "reactive", "deactivate", "reactivation" § Common morpheme of "act" with more morphemes added on § "-or" is an affix because it only exists when added to the end of a root ○ Free vs. Bound § Free can stand alone § Bound must be attached to another unit ○ Allomorphs: variants of a common morpheme § "a" vs. "an" □ "a cat" vs. "an elephant" serves the same function, but sounds and forms slightly different § "stairs" vs. "cats": "s" is harder in "stairs" than in "cats", but they have the same function, so they are allomorphs § "electric" vs. "electricity" • Roots and Affixes ○ Root § Carries core meaning of the word § Belongs to a lexical category (noun, verb, etc) § Can typically occur in free form, but they can be bound as well □ "disgruntled" but not "gruntled" (article on page 122) ○ Affix § Always bound, cannot ever stand alone § No lexical category, not a noun, verb, adjective on it's own ○ Base § Any form to which an affix can be added □ Could be root, could be more complex ® "act" is a the base in "activation", but "active" is the root § "broil" => "embroil" => "embroiled" Derivation and Compounding • Derivation ○ Application of an affix that forms a word with a new meaning or lexical category ○ "Swim" (verb) => "Swimmer" (noun) • Compounding ○ Combining two existing words § Head:component that determines lexical category ○ Usually rightmost component More ways to form words • Blending: "smog", "labradoodle" • Backformation: "enthuse" ○ When you go backwards "disgruntled" creates "gruntled" • Acronyms: "AIDS", "Lol" ○ Usually rightmost component More ways to form words • Blending: "smog", "labradoodle" • Backformation: "enthuse" ○ When you go backwards "disgruntled" creates "gruntled" • Acronyms: "AIDS", "Lol" • Onomatopoeia: "beep" • Eponyms: "boycott", "sideburns", "Achilles heel" ○ The word for something has been derived from someone's name Assignment: • Form five new words and definitions • Create a sentence containing the word, to illustrate how it would be used • Identify the morphological processes that you used to create each word • You must use a minimum of four different processes in the creation of your new word list. • You may use more than one process to create a single word. Identify all processes used in this case. 1. genther (v.) : to enrage or work up over inconsequential events or occurrences The paper plate fell from his hand, flipping face first on--rnd he completely genthered. EPONYM 2. shecks (n.) : a term for the trapezius muscles where the shoulder meets the neck After her work out her shecks ached and it hurt to raise her arms. BLEND 3. plussed (adj.) : a state of being impressed with something or someone The way she flew through the air, unattached and unsupported except by the bars hanging three stories from the dirt beneath her--he was completely plussed. BACKFORMATION 4. capriciate (v.) : to change mood unpredictably or suddenly He arrived with a smile and a laugh, but it didn't take long for him to capriciate and become volatile and belligerent. DERIVATION 5. poligerent (adj.) : angry or even violent due to political motivations, politically belligerent The conservation protest escalated as the crowd became poligerent, no longer disobeying civilly, but as angry spectators. BLEND Speech Perception Thursday, September 15, 2016 1:34 PM What is speech perception? A person's experience of language. • How do listeners process speech segments and continuous speech? ○ Very rarely encounter a situation when you are brought language without continuous speech ○ Listener indicates that there is something about sound • Parallel transmission and the segmentation problem ○ Parallel transmission § Vowel and consonant information as c-articulated □ The formation of the vowel sound is affected by how you positioned your motor movements for the consonant sound before it. § These are not discrete units, one lined up to another. They effect each other. ○ Contextual variation § A given phoneme does not have invariant (unique) acoustic properties □ All give rise to the same perceptual experience --what you hear and experience □ In terms of it's acoustic properties, there is a range of acoustic patterns § A given phoneme will vary across contexts □ Captured by a phonemic category □ Di vs. Du: the "d" is different just because of where it's going. The vowel shapes the end of that phoneme • Is speech perception a purely auditory act? ○ Multi-Modal: The McGurk Effect § Listening to the auditory of ba ba ba, while watching fa fa fa □ Changes the perception of the sound and the understanding of it □ Take 2 phones that share sound qualities, but very different visual qualities ® Combination of the visual and acoustic information the system receives ® Solution of two inputs § Not what was acoustical or visually produced exclusively. It overlapped and makes a third variable visual qualities ® Combination of the visual and acoustic information the system receives ® Solution of two inputs § Not what was acoustical or visually produced exclusively. It overlapped and makes a third variable § Implications □ Lip reading § Phoneme is perceptual □ Product of the interaction between what you see and what you hear ○ Bottom Up vs. Top Down Processing § Bottom Up □ From raw sensory data to recognition/solution □ Phonetic Analysis ® What are those acoustic and articulatory pieces and what solution do they give us? § Top Down □ Start from expectation to recognition/solution □ Do these two processes interact in speech perception? ○ The Phonemic Restoration Effect § "The state governors met with their respective legi*lators convening in the capitol city." □ Some people would receive all that information □ Some people would receive everything, but would clip out and obliterate any properties from the "s" that was replaced by the "*". □ People didn't notice anything, or they thought there was a stumble or pause or cough, but they couldn’t place it. § Perceptually restores the missing phoneme § "It was found that the *eel | was on the shoe / was on the orange / was on the machine / was on the table." □ Reported heel, peel, wheel, meal. □ The exact same sound segment, the * has a different sound for each ending spliced on. • To what extent is this an interactive process between producer and listener? ○ Does the listener contribute something in the process
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