New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Ling 300, Morphology and Speech&Perception

by: Jamie Milliff

Ling 300, Morphology and Speech&Perception LING 300 H01

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Psychology (PSYC) > LING 300 H01 > Ling 300 Morphology and Speech Perception
Jamie Milliff
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover the lecture material, explanations, and examples for the Morphology and Speech & Perception units. They explain what morphemes are, how they form words, and how they connect with...
HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences
Dr. Robin Morris
Class Notes
Linguistics, Language, perception, speech, morphology, morphemes, affix, prefixes, suffix, processing, bottom-up, top-down, phonemese, McGurk




Popular in HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Milliff on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 300 H01 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Robin Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.


Reviews for Ling 300, Morphology and Speech&Perception


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/08/16
Morphology Tuesday, September 20, 2016 1:17 PM What is morphology? The study of the internal structure of words. "word making" The Lexicon • The mental dictionary ○ So what do people do with it? What's in your mental dictionary? How does it get there? What's in a given entry? ○ Lexicographers: develop and work on dictionaries § Same general dictionary entries for the past hundreds of years • The word ○ Form ○ Meaning § "car" + "care" => "carecare": means generally the same thing apart, adding meaning to the words on their own § "car" + "pet" => "carpet": means something different unless you change the inflection The structure and formation of words • Word: smallest free form linguistic unit ○ English words are split by spaces, but there are other languages that chose different rules § Compounding and hyper-compounding in Finnish or German ○ Must be able to stand alone § "jump", "jumps", "jumper" § "castle", "castles" ○ May occur in a fixed position with respect to other § "the" is meaningless without the words around it • Morpheme: component of word ○ Smallest unit of language that carries meaning § Not the letter string, it's the meaning of the root itself ○ "act", "actor", "active", "activate", "reactive", "deactivate", "reactivation" § Common morpheme of "act" with more morphemes added on § "-or" is an affix because it only exists when added to the end of a root ○ Free vs. Bound § Not the letter string, it's the meaning of the root itself ○ "act", "actor", "active", "activate", "reactive", "deactivate", "reactivation" § Common morpheme of "act" with more morphemes added on § "-or" is an affix because it only exists when added to the end of a root ○ Free vs. Bound § Free can stand alone § Bound must be attached to another unit ○ Allomorphs: variants of a common morpheme § "a" vs. "an" □ "a cat" vs. "an elephant" serves the same function, but sounds and forms slightly different § "stairs" vs. "cats": "s" is harder in "stairs" than in "cats", but they have the same function, so they are allomorphs § "electric" vs. "electricity" • Roots and Affixes ○ Root § Carries core meaning of the word § Belongs to a lexical category (noun, verb, etc) § Can typically occur in free form, but they can be bound as well □ "disgruntled" but not "gruntled" (article on page 122) ○ Affix § Always bound, cannot ever stand alone § No lexical category, not a noun, verb, adjective on it's own ○ Base § Any form to which an affix can be added □ Could be root, could be more complex ® "act" is a the base in "activation", but "active" is the root § "broil" => "embroil" => "embroiled" Derivation and Compounding • Derivation ○ Application of an affix that forms a word with a new meaning or lexical category ○ "Swim" (verb) => "Swimmer" (noun) • Compounding ○ Combining two existing words § Head:component that determines lexical category ○ Usually rightmost component More ways to form words • Blending: "smog", "labradoodle" • Backformation: "enthuse" ○ When you go backwards "disgruntled" creates "gruntled" • Acronyms: "AIDS", "Lol" ○ Usually rightmost component More ways to form words • Blending: "smog", "labradoodle" • Backformation: "enthuse" ○ When you go backwards "disgruntled" creates "gruntled" • Acronyms: "AIDS", "Lol" • Onomatopoeia: "beep" • Eponyms: "boycott", "sideburns", "Achilles heel" ○ The word for something has been derived from someone's name Assignment: • Form five new words and definitions • Create a sentence containing the word, to illustrate how it would be used • Identify the morphological processes that you used to create each word • You must use a minimum of four different processes in the creation of your new word list. • You may use more than one process to create a single word. Identify all processes used in this case. 1. genther (v.) : to enrage or work up over inconsequential events or occurrences The paper plate fell from his hand, flipping face first on--rnd he completely genthered. EPONYM 2. shecks (n.) : a term for the trapezius muscles where the shoulder meets the neck After her work out her shecks ached and it hurt to raise her arms. BLEND 3. plussed (adj.) : a state of being impressed with something or someone The way she flew through the air, unattached and unsupported except by the bars hanging three stories from the dirt beneath her--he was completely plussed. BACKFORMATION 4. capriciate (v.) : to change mood unpredictably or suddenly He arrived with a smile and a laugh, but it didn't take long for him to capriciate and become volatile and belligerent. DERIVATION 5. poligerent (adj.) : angry or even violent due to political motivations, politically belligerent The conservation protest escalated as the crowd became poligerent, no longer disobeying civilly, but as angry spectators. BLEND Speech Perception Thursday, September 15, 2016 1:34 PM What is speech perception? A person's experience of language. • How do listeners process speech segments and continuous speech? ○ Very rarely encounter a situation when you are brought language without continuous speech ○ Listener indicates that there is something about sound • Parallel transmission and the segmentation problem ○ Parallel transmission § Vowel and consonant information as c-articulated □ The formation of the vowel sound is affected by how you positioned your motor movements for the consonant sound before it. § These are not discrete units, one lined up to another. They effect each other. ○ Contextual variation § A given phoneme does not have invariant (unique) acoustic properties □ All give rise to the same perceptual experience --what you hear and experience □ In terms of it's acoustic properties, there is a range of acoustic patterns § A given phoneme will vary across contexts □ Captured by a phonemic category □ Di vs. Du: the "d" is different just because of where it's going. The vowel shapes the end of that phoneme • Is speech perception a purely auditory act? ○ Multi-Modal: The McGurk Effect § Listening to the auditory of ba ba ba, while watching fa fa fa □ Changes the perception of the sound and the understanding of it □ Take 2 phones that share sound qualities, but very different visual qualities ® Combination of the visual and acoustic information the system receives ® Solution of two inputs § Not what was acoustical or visually produced exclusively. It overlapped and makes a third variable visual qualities ® Combination of the visual and acoustic information the system receives ® Solution of two inputs § Not what was acoustical or visually produced exclusively. It overlapped and makes a third variable § Implications □ Lip reading § Phoneme is perceptual □ Product of the interaction between what you see and what you hear ○ Bottom Up vs. Top Down Processing § Bottom Up □ From raw sensory data to recognition/solution □ Phonetic Analysis ® What are those acoustic and articulatory pieces and what solution do they give us? § Top Down □ Start from expectation to recognition/solution □ Do these two processes interact in speech perception? ○ The Phonemic Restoration Effect § "The state governors met with their respective legi*lators convening in the capitol city." □ Some people would receive all that information □ Some people would receive everything, but would clip out and obliterate any properties from the "s" that was replaced by the "*". □ People didn't notice anything, or they thought there was a stumble or pause or cough, but they couldn’t place it. § Perceptually restores the missing phoneme § "It was found that the *eel | was on the shoe / was on the orange / was on the machine / was on the table." □ Reported heel, peel, wheel, meal. □ The exact same sound segment, the * has a different sound for each ending spliced on. • To what extent is this an interactive process between producer and listener? ○ Does the listener contribute something in the process


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.