Intro Chemistry Week 7 Notes
Intro Chemistry Week 7 Notes 13699
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Tate on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 13699 at Appalachian State University taught by Alexander Schwab in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro Chemistry I in Chemistry at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Chapter4 Notes Cont. (10/3/16 & 10/7/16) Example: Write the balancednet ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when solutions of calciumchloride and sodium carbonate aremixed to givea precipitate of calciumcarbonate. CaCl 2aq) +Na CO 2aq)3 CaCO (s)+2NaC3 (aq) 2+ - + 2- + - Ca +2Cl + 2Na + CO 3 CaCO (s)32Na + 2Cl Ca +CO 32- CaCO (s)3 Acids(Arrhenius) + Svante Arrhenius proposed that substances that dissociateandproduce H in aqueous solution should be calledacids o Monoprotic acids produce 1 H per molecule o Polyprotic acids produce more than 1 H per molecule HCl (aq) H (aq) +Cl (aq) + - H 2O (4q) H (aq) + HSO (aq) 4 HSO (4q) H (aq) + SO (aq) 4- Bases (Arrhenius) - Substances that dissociateandproduce OH in aqueous solutions o NaOH(aq) Na (aq) + OH (aq) - Acidsand Bases Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry proposed and improved a new definition o Substances which donated a proton (i.e.H ) to another substance arecalled acids o Substances which take another proton from another substanceare calledbases Bronsted –Lowry Acid • Rather than thinking of HCl as splitting into ions,HCl transfers the H+to a water molecule making H3O+ (hydronium). o – Weoften useH+(aq) or H3O+(aq)interchangeably when describing how acids behave in aqueous solution. o HCl (aq) + H O (2) → Cl (aq) + H O (a3) + Bronsted –Lowry Base Many bases areionic compounds that dissociatetogiveOH (aq) (Arrhenius) - o NaOH(aq)→ Na+(aq)+ OH (aq) Some molecular compounds take a proton from water and produce OH-(aq)(B-L): + - o NH (aq3 + H O (l2 ⇌ NH (aq)+ 4H (aq) Strong Electrolytes ALL ionic compounds, Ionic compounds that dissolve100% o Units dissociatecompletely into ions strong acids,and strong Molecular compounds like HCl (strong acid) arealsostrong bases arestrong electrolytes electrolytes Weak Acids HC 2 3 i2 a molecularcompound that acts as anacid: + - o HC H 2 3aq)2+H O (l)2H O (aq)3+C H O (aq)2 3 2 o “⇌” are equilibrium arrows; reaction goes forward and reverse At any given time, only some (~2%) of the acetic aciddonated its proton to water to produce H O3 + Weak acids makeweak electrolytes ALL molecular compounds (that aren’t Strong and Weak Bases bases or acids)are non- Strong Base=strong electrolyte electrolytes o Ca(OH) (aq2 →Ca (aq) +2 OH (aq) - Weak Base=weak electrolyte o CH NH3(aq2 +H O(l) 2OH (aq) + CH NH (aq)3 3+ Strong Acids Strong Bases HCl LiOH HBr NaOH HI KOH HClO 3 RbOH HClO 4 CsOH HNO 3 Ca(OH) 2 H2SO 4 Sr(OH) 2 Ba(OH) 2 NonmetalOxides Certain nonmetal oxides produce H O 3y a 2– stepprocess: o SO (g3 +H O (2) → H SO (2q) 4 o H SO2(aq4 + H O (2) →H O (aq3 + HSO (aq) 4- Similarly, 2 O5(g) and CO 2g)have the sameeffect when reacting with water MetalOxides Water soluble metal oxides produce OH by a 2 –step process: o Na O 2aq) → 2Na (aq) + O (aq) 2- 2- - o O (aq) +H O (l2 → 2 OH (aq) Naming Acids All acids contain a H in their structure combined with some anion: HCl (aq) +H O2(l) Cl (aq) + H O 3aq) HC 2 3 (2q) +H O 2l) ⇌H O (3q) +C H O (2 3 2- The only thing that differs between acids is therefore the resulting anion The names ofacids are generated from the name of the anion Monatomic Anions o When anacidis made from a monatomic anion, a binary acidis made Contains only 2 elements o All monatomic anions have –ide endings Br - bromide; F -fluoride o To name acids generated from theseanions change –ide to –ic and add the prefix hydro- HBr –Hydrobromic acid;HF –Hydrofluoric acid o Acids are molecular compounds when not in water so name them as any other molecular compound So if the compound is not in HCl (g)= hydrogen chloride o In aqueous solutions they behave as acids aqueous form (aq) do not usethe acidic name HCl (aq) =hydrochloric acid Polyatomic Anions o Most are oxyanions whose names end with –ate or –ite o To name, change –ateto –ic and –ite to –ous o Retainprefixes HClO =4erchloric acid HClO =3hloric acid HClO =2hlorousacid HClO =hypochlorous acid o Example: Name the following acids:H CO 2HBr3HCN,andH SO 2 3 H CO2=2H3and CO socarbo3ic acid + - Exception to rule because HBr =H and Br sohydrobromic acid *HCN= H and CN sohydrocyanic acid the polyatomic anion does H SO2=2H3and SO so sulf3rous acid not end in –ate or -ite What are the formulas for nitrous acid,bromic acid, and phosphoric acid? + - The anion is bromate Nitrous acid= H +NO soHNO 2 2 Bromic acid=H + BrO so HBr3- 3 becausethe formula Phosphoric acid =H + PO+ 3-soH PO name ends in –ic and 4 3 4 not -ide Classifyas eitherstrong,weak, or non-electrolytes: C H 6 12lu6ose) –non-electrolyte CH OO3a (sodiumacetate) – strong CaCl -s2rong HNO -st3ong C H 2 5ethanol) –non-electrolyte HCOOH(formic acid) -weak KOH –strong Exchange(Metathesis)Reactions Reactions with ionic compounds, acids,and/or bases where cations and anions appear to “exchangepartners” Balancing o Useformulas of reactants to determine ions present o Write formulas of products by “exchanging” ions in reactants o Balancethe equation Example: o Predict the metathesis products when solutions of sodium chloride and potassium sulfateare mixed 2 NaCl (aq) + K 2O (4q) Na SO (2q) 4 2KCl (aq) o Write the ionic and net ionic equations + - + 2- + 2 - + Ionic: 2 Na +2 Cl + 2 K +SO 4 2 Na + SO +2C4 +2 K * No net ionic equation becauseno precipitate formed o Predict the metathesis products when solutions of phosphoric acid and calcium chloride aremixed H3PO (4q) + CaCl (a2) Ca (PO )3(s) 4 2l (aq) 2+ 3- Net Ionic Equation: Ca +PO 4 Ca (3O ) 4 2 Solubility Rules SolubleCompounds 1. All compounds of the alkali metals (Group 1A) 2. All salts containing NH ,N4 ,ClO3,ClO ,4ndC H 3- 2 3 2- + 2+ 3. All chlorides,bromides, and iodides except when combined with Ag ,Pb ,and Hg 22+(mercury I) 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 4. All sulfates except when combined with Pb ,Ca , Sr ,Hg 2 ,andBa InsolubleCompounds 5. All metal hydroxides and metal oxides except when combined with elementsfrom Group 1A and Ca ,Sr ,and Ba 2+ *When metal oxides do dissolve,they react with H O to fo2m hydroxides Na O2(s)+ H O 2l) 2NaOH (aq) 6. All salts thatcontain phosphate, carbonate, sulfite,and sulfide except when combined with elementsfromGroup 1A and NH 4+